Developing a Feasible Business Model for Expanding the EV Market to Lower Income Californians

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Developing a Feasible Business Model for Expanding the EV Market to Lower Income Californians


Electric vehicles (EVs) are a valuable tool in addressing the climate and energy challenges placed on our transportation systems. However, while national and international market shares of EVs have been rising with exponential rates, access to EVs of low-income populations has been significantly slower. This research developed a business model for expanding the EV market to low-income Californians. The team developed the model from qualitative data from various stakeholders, including Electric and Solar Companies, Professional and Community-Based Organizations, State Agencies, research institutions, and more, which enabled insights regarding various barriers that hinder the adoption of EVs. The team also used a state-wide survey to understand the barriers from the point of view of lower income Californians. The business model created from this data can be used by state administrators, policy makers, and social emprises to mitigate the barriers faced by low-income Californians within the EV market.



Dr. Samer Sarofim is an award-winning marketing scholar and educator. He is a Faculty Fellow at Fresno State Transportation Institute and an Assistant Professor of Marketing at Craig School of Business, California State University – Fresno. His research was honored by the Best Paper Award in the Consumer Behavior Track at the American Marketing Association Summer Academic Conference. Dr. Sarofim is also the recipient of the Pearson Education Michael Solomon Consumer Behavior Best Paper Award and the Society for Marketing Advances Conference (Retailing Track) Best Paper Award. Dr. Sarofim’s research has appeared in multiple prestigious academic journals, including Marketing Letters and the Journal of Business Research. 


Dr. Tawfik is an associate professor of transportation systems engineering and founding director of the Transportation Institute at California State University, Fresno. His area of expertise includes modeling as well as simulation and optimization of individual travel behavior and transportation systems, and he has a particular passion for transportation sustainability and the future of transportation. He is active on research projects and grants focusing on travel data innovations, GIS applications in transportation, and using technology to minimize commute footprints. His other research projects focus on automated transportation systems, particularly shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs). He serves on local, national, and international transportation boards and committees. He is the author of many peer-reviewed publications and has given keynote presentations at local, national, and international conferences.

July 2022
Low-income groups
Electric vehicles
Business models
Advocacy groups



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