As an emerging field, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has a myriad of security vulnerabilities that must be addressed to protect system integrity. To stay ahead of novel attacks, cybersecurity professionals are developing new software and systems using machine learning techniques. Neural network architectures improve such systems, including Intrusion Detection System (IDSs), by implementing anomaly detection, which differentiates benign data packets from malicious ones. For an IDS to best predict anomalies, the model is trained on data that is typically pre-processed through normalization and feature selection/reduction. These pre-processing techniques play an important role in training a neural network to optimize its performance. This research studies the impact of applying normalization techniques as a pre-processing step to learning, as used by the IDSs. The impacts of pre-processing techniques play an important role in training neural networks to optimize its performance. This report proposes a Deep Neural Network (DNN) model with two hidden layers for IDS architecture and compares two commonly used normalization pre-processing techniques. Our findings are evaluated using accuracy, Area Under Curve (AUC), Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC), F-1 Score, and loss. The experimentations demonstrate that Z-Score outperforms no-normalization and the use of Min-Max normalization.
SHAHAB TAYEB, PhD
Dr. Shahab Tayeb is a faculty member with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the Lyles College of Engineering at California State University, Fresno. Dr. Tayeb’s research expertise and interests include network security and privacy, particularly in the context of the Internet of Vehicles. His research incorporates machine learning techniques and data analytics approaches to tackle the detection of zero-day attacks. Through funding from the Fresno State Transportation Institute, his research team has been working on the security of the network backbone for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles over the past two years. He has also been the recipient of several scholarships and national awards including a US Congressional Commendation for STEM mentorship.