Exploring the Effects of Individual Differences on Tactile Display Perception in Automated Vehicles

Current automated vehicles may require drivers to transition to manual driving (i.e., takeover) when encountering certain driving conditions, such as entering a construction zone. This takeover task can be more challenging in urban areas where it requires drivers to perceive and process environment information, such as surrounding vehicle positions and status, pedestrians, road signs, and traffic lights in a very short period of time. In this case, assistive technology that can present real-time driving instructions to navigate drivers to takeover and avoid obstacles may be necessary. A tactile display can be a reliable option in data-rich driving environments where drivers’ visual and auditory modalities may be overloaded. Therefore, the goal of this project is to design and test meaningful tactile patterns as an assistive interface, as well as to compare individual differences in interpreting tactile information during automated driving. A human-subject experiment will be conducted in a simulated automated vehicle.

Mineta Consortium for Transportation Mobility
San José State University
Principal Investigator: 
Gaojian Huang
PI Contact Information: 

Mineta Transportation Institute
San José State University
210 N. 4th St., 4th Floor
San José, CA 95112


Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization): 

U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology - $6,533.06

Total Project Cost: 
Agency ID or Contract Number: 
September 2021 to February 2022
Impacts/Benefits of Implementation: 

Possible findings of this project will provide empirical evidence of the application of tactile displays in automated vehicles, which may contribute to the development of next-generation emerging technologies for facilitating communications between humans and technology in data-rich environments where visual and auditory channels may be overly occupied. Additionally, the focus on individual differences may promote inclusive design that aims to increase the accessibility of technology for people in a wide range of demographic groups.

Project Number: 



Contact Us

SJSU Research Foundation   210 N. 4th Street, 4th Floor, San Jose, CA 95112    Phone: 408-924-7560   Email: mineta-institute@sjsu.edu