Promoting Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs): Policy Options, Strategies and Tools to Facilitate TOD-supportive Land Use/Zoning and Use of Transit- and TOD-generated Land Value Increase to Fund TODs

TODs are being constructed nationally as a tool to increase transit ridership and reduce vehicles miles travelled (VMT) and in California, to meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets.  The Federal government too, through ISTEA, TEA-21 and more recently, SAFETEA-LU, MAP-21 and FAST, is promoting TODs by reinforcing the need to integrate land use and transportation planning and to promote public transit.

While TODs remain a desirable goal, several barriers hinder the development and finance of TODs.  These include, among others: a) an absence of supportive zoning and land use in and around transit stations that is often due to i) a lack of inter-agency coordination; and ii) transit agencies’ limited zoning and land-use powers over land in and around the stations; and b) limited will, focus and capacity to leverage transit- and TOD-generated land value increment. Financing tools to capture such increments broadly fall under the umbrella of land value capture (LVC) tools.

The proposed research advances the body of knowledge through an updated review of the barriers to TODs.  Furthermore, through in-depth case study analysis and recommendations, it proposes solutions for removing these barriers, especially those related to supportive land use and zoning and the use of LVC tools to fund TODs.


Mineta Consortium for Transportation Mobility
San José State University

Principal Investigator: 

Shishir Mathur, Ph.D.

PI Contact Information: 

Mineta Transportation Institute
San José State University
210 N. 4th St., 4th Floor
San Jose, CA 95112

Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization): 

U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology – $74,911

Total Project Cost: 


Agency ID or Contract Number: 



September 2018 to August 2020

Project Number: