Impact of Smart Phones' Interaction Modality on Driving Performance for Conventional and Autonomous Vehicles

Distracted driving related to cell phone usage ranks among the top three causes of fatal crashes on the road. Although forty-eight U.S. states currently allow the use of personal devices if operated hands-free and secured in the vehicle, scientific studies have yet to quantify the safety improvement presumed to be introduced by voice-to-text interactions. This study investigates how different modes of drivers' interaction with a smart phone (i.e., manual texting vs. vocal input) affect drivers’ distraction and performance in both conventional and semi-autonomous vehicles. The study was executed in a full-car integrated simulator with a sample size of 32 drivers. The study considered two scenarios: (1) conventional manual driving in a suburban environment with intersection stops; and (2) control takeover from an engaged autonomous vehicle that reverted to manual driving at a highway exit. The quality of execution of maneuvers as well as timing and tracking of eye-gaze focus areas were assessed in both scenarios. Results demonstrated that while participants perceived an increased level of safety while using the hands-free interface, response times and drift did not significantly differ from those manually texting. Furthermore, even though participants perceived a greater effort in accomplishing the text reply through the manual interface, none of the measured quantities for driving performance or eye-gaze focus revealed statistical difference between the two interfaces, ultimately calling into question the assumption of greater safety implicit in the laws allowing hands-free devices.

Mineta Consortium for Transportation Mobility
San José State University
Principal Investigator: 
Francesca Favaro, PhD
PI Contact Information: 

Mineta Transportation Institute
San José State University
210 N. 4th St., 4th Floor
San Jose, CA 95112

Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization): 

U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology – $73, 816 

Total Project Cost: 
Agency ID or Contract Number: 
September 2018 to January 2020
Project Number: 



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