TOD and Park-and-Ride: Which is Appropriate Where?

Although transit authorities in progressive urban regions on the West Coast seem to favor high-density housing development near transit stops to reduce automobile travel and increase use of public transit, professional literature indicates there is uncertainty about the relative impact of TOD compared with alternative strategies. Analyzing data with econometric modeling, the researchers will investigate and compare the transit ridership impacts of various observed combinations of TOD, P&R, and unmanaged market-driven development. By describing the characteristics of zones and transit service characteristics where TOD and/or parking are more suitable, the researchers intend to reduce professional uncertainty about the effectiveness of resource allocations to the two tactics for generating ridership.

Mineta Consortium for Transportation Mobility
San José State University
Principal Investigator: 
John Niles
PI Contact Information: 

Mineta Transportation Institute
San José State University
210 N. 4th St., 4th Floor
San Jose, CA 95112

Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization): 

U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology – $74,911

Total Project Cost: 
Agency ID or Contract Number: 
September 2018 to October 2020
Project Number: 



Contact Us

SJSU Research Foundation   210 N. 4th Street, 4th Floor, San Jose, CA 95112    Phone: 408-924-7560   Email: