Exploring E-Bike Safety Performance Data and Policy Options

This study will be conducted as directed by California Senate Bill 381 (2023), which calls for research to help policymakers develop effective laws and policy that support expanded electric bicycle (“e-bike”) use in a way that protects the safety of both e-bike riders and other road users. The two primary components of the work are to:  

  • analyze data on crashes, injuries, emergency room visits, and deaths for human-powered and motorized bicycles, and
  • identify best practices for laws and policy to promote the safe use of e-bikes.

The specific tasks as specified in the legislation are as follows: 

  • Data on injuries, crashes, emergency room visits, and deaths related to bicycles and electric bicycles.
  • Factors and circumstances that are correlated with the crashes of bicycles and electric bicycles.
  • Best practices for policy to promote safe use of electric bicycles.
  • Laws in other state vehicle codes about electric bicycles.
  • Data on the safety impacts of electric bicycle components and accessories including, but not limited to, headlights, speedometers, brakes, tires, bells, and reflectors.
  • Data on the safety performance of electric bicycle batteries.
  • Data on the manufacturing of electric bicycles, including, but not limited to, the market of electric bicycles, manufacturer information, sales patterns, and the number of electric bicycles on California roads, including the usage by city and the reasons behind the usage.
  • Review of policies that other countries with high electric bicycle ridership use to promote the safe use of electric bicycles, including, but not limited to, cyclist and driver training, street infrastructure policy, and insurance or licensing requirements.
  • Recommendations for state policy to support expanded use of electric bicycles that protects the safety of riders and other road users, including, but not limited to, recommendations on whether there are needed revisions to the Vehicle Code, and improved data collection on electric bicycles.
San José State University
Principal Investigator: 
Asha Weinstein Agrawal
PI Contact Information: 


San Jose State University

December 2023 to December 2024
Implementation of Research Outcomes: 

The study will generate policy recommendations.

Impacts/Benefits of Implementation: 

This research will help the California legislature and local governments to identify laws and policies that effectively balance safety for all road users with the freedom to travel by this affordable and climate-friendly mode.

Project Number: 



Contact Us

SJSU Research Foundation   210 N. 4th Street, 4th Floor, San Jose, CA 95112    Phone: 408-924-7560   Email: mineta-institute@sjsu.edu