PUBLICATION

MTI Report 12-08

Research Report Exercise Handbook: What Transportation Security and Emergency Preparedness Leaders Need to Know to Improve Emergency Preparedness (PDF 2.2MB)

Principal Investigator: Frances L. Edwards, M.U.P., Ph.D., C.E.M.

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has provided extensive general guidance on developing training and exercise programs for public entities, but little had been done to focus that material on the transportation sector specifically. Transportation sector emergency managers have noted that there should be specific guidance for developing exercises that are focused on the operational work of their agencies, in addition to the Logistics Section functions that are usually the focus of transportation sector entities in multi-agency, multi-jurisdiction exercises. The first section of his report provides information on federal training and exercise requirements for transportation sector entities. It summarizes the changes to emergency management programs and requirements that grew out of the Presidential Policy Directive-8 (PPD-8) issuance in early 2011, and the challenges of adult training. The second section is a Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP)-compliant practical handbook using the project management approach that guides transportation sector staff in the creation, development, implementation and wrap-up of federally mandated exercises. It includes scenarios and implementation guidance based on the actual experiences and work of the transportation sector.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Frances L. Edwards, M.U.P., Ph.D., C.E.M.

Frannie Edwards is the director of the Master of Public Administration program and professor of political science at San José State University (SJSU). She is Deputy Director of the National Transportation Security Center of the Mineta Transportation Institute at SJSU, where she is also a Research Associate, and teaches emergency management in the Master of Science in Transportation Management program. Her current research is focused on the role of exercises in transportation sector agencies, and the role of seismic early warning systems in the JR East response to the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. She is also researching issues related to climate change and transportation, transportation cyber-security issues, and the role of transportation in the Incident Command System structure. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Transportation Research Board’s ABE40 Committee focused on critical infrastructure security, the Transportation Research Board’s NCHRP Project 20-05/Topic 44-12 panel on training for field level transportation sector staff, and the SJSU Cyber Security Committee.

Dr. Edwards and Dan Goodrich have written Introduction to Transportation Security, the first textbook in the field to cover safety, security and emergency management issues in multiple transportation modes, for which she was recently designated as a University Scholar. She has been guest editor for an edition of Natural Hazards Review, and for The Public Manager’s editions on climate change, and on disaster recovery following Hurricane Katrina.

This year she delivered papers at the American Society for Public Administration National Conference, the Disaster Resistant University Conference and the TRB Security Conference, and held a poster session at the Natural Hazards Conference.

Recent research work includes chapters in Disasters and Development, Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management (2nd edition), Global Cases of Best and Worst Practice in Crisis and Emergency Management, Cultural Competency in Disaster Mitigation, Planning, Response and Recovery; Minority Resilience and the Legacy of Disaster, and two transportation-related cases in Case Studies in Homeland Security. She co-authored chapters on state and local hazard mitigation measures in Natural Hazard Mitigation: A Handbook for Practitioners and Academics, and “Campus Emergency Planning,” in The Challenges of Higher Education and Emergency Management, both with Dan Goodrich.

Dr. Edwards has been quoted in the New York Times’ coverage of the West, Texas, explosions, and recently been interviewed by several media outlets on personal emergency preparedness. In June 2011 Dr. Edwards was interviewed on the CNN Headline News program Newsmakers regarding an MTI report on the DHS “See Something, Say Something” program.

Dr. Edwards’ most recent publications for MTI have included studies of traffic circulation in emergencies with Pande, et al.; and a generic COOP/COG Plan and continuity of operations report and training set, both with Goodrich.

Dr. Edwards chaired two NATO terrorism workshops, one in Portugal and one in Germany, and co-authored two books that grew from those workshops with Friedrich Steinhausler: NATO and Terrorism: On Scene! Emergency Management after a Major Terror Attack, and NATO and Terrorism: Catastrophic Terrorism and First Responders.

She was a 2006 Fellow of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, and studied terrorism at Tel Aviv University; and a Saltzbrug Fellow in 2012. She has also published over 30 articles in journals, and delivered professional papers at more than 35 conferences.

Previously, Dr. Edwards was director of the Office of Emergency Services in San José, California, for 14 years, including one year as Acting Assistant Chief, San José Fire Department. She was director of San Jose’s Metropolitan Medical Task Force (MMTF), a CBRNE terrorism response unit, and head of the four-county “San José Urban Area Security Initiative.” While Dr. Edwards was director of the Office of Emergency Services, the Wall Street Journal called San José the “best prepared city in the United States” for disasters. She represented emergency management on the five-night “Bio-War” series on ABC’s Nightline with Ted Koppel in October 1999.

She has been a member of the Stanford University Working Group on Chemical and Biological Warfare, the Department of Justice’s Executive Session on Domestic Preparedness at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine MMRS Review Committee, and the California Seismic Safety Commission. She was named Public Official of the Year 2002 by Governing magazine, and one of the “Power 100 of Silicon Valley” by San José Magazine.

She has a Ph.D. in public administration, a Master of Urban Planning, an M.A. in Political Science (International Relations) and a Certificate in Hazardous Materials Management. She is a Certified Emergency Manager and a FEMA Professional Continuity Practitioner.

Daniel C. Goodrich, M.P.A., C.E.M., M.E.P.

Dan Goodrich is a Research Associate with the Mineta Transportation Institute, and a lecturer in the Master of Science in Transportation Management program, where he teaches Security for Transportation Managers; and in the Master of Public Administration program, where he teaches Public Management. His current research is focused on the continuity of operations process and its relationship to emergency management in transportation organizations, the Incident Command System for transportation sector field personnel, and on transportation security issues, especially related to critical infrastructure protection. He is a member of the San Jose State University Cyber-Security Committee.

Mr. Goodrich and Dr. Edwards have written Introduction to Transportation Security, the first textbook in the field to cover safety, security and emergency management issues in multiple transportation modes, for which he was recently designated as a University Scholar.

In 2013 Mr. Goodrich delivered papers at the Transportation Research Board’s annual meeting on global supply chain security and the COOP process, the TRB Security Workshop, and held a poster session at the Natural Hazards Workshop. He co-authored chapters on state and local hazard mitigation measures in Natural Hazard Mitigation: A Handbook for Practitioners and Academics, and “Campus Emergency Planning,” in The Challenges of Higher Education and Emergency Management, both with Edwards.

Mr. Goodrich has done research in global supply chain security, resulting in a chapter co-authored with Edwards, published in Supply Chain Security: International Innovations and Practices for Moving Goods Safely and Efficiently. He has co-authored a chapter, “Organizing for Emergency Management” in the ICMA textbook Emergency Management with Edwards, and has three entries on nuclear topics in The WMD Encyclopedia. He has delivered papers at ten other emergency management and homeland security conferences over the years, including the DHS Transportation Technology Transfer conference.

Mr. Goodrich was appointed U.S. Security Documents Reviewer for the European Union’s CAST Project, focused on the development of unified training for first responders across EU member states. In June 2007 he was a guest of the Turkish government at the Second Istanbul Conference on Democracy and Global Security, and his paper on policing after disasters was published in Turkey. He was selected as a 2006 Fellow of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, studying terrorism in Israel at Tel Aviv University.

He delivered a paper on Fourth Generation Warfare at the 2006 NATO STS-CNAD meeting for 20 nations in Portugal, which was adopted as an annex for NATO and Terrorism: On Scene!, the book developed from the workshop by Edwards and Steinhausler. In 2004 he chaired a session on “First Responders” at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Germany that focused on the research needs to support first responders to CBRNE terrorism. He also served as a member of the NATO Expert Session on Nuclear Security Transportation in 2003-2004.

Mr. Goodrich has been an active member of the San José Metropolitan Medical Task Force, a CBRNE response unit, since 1999, where he has served as exercise director for eight facilitated exercises, a model of exercise that he developed. Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government has selected the creation of this exercise style for a case study in its executive management series.

Mr. Goodrich’s civilian career has included emergency management positions for the City of San José, the Santa Clara County Public Health Department and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. He currently serves as a consultant to the California Department of Transportation on emergency management and continuity of operations planning and training, and has provided training services for NASA/Ames Research Center staff in emergency management.

Mr. Goodrich served in the United States Marine Corps for ten years, including leadership positions in Security Forces. He is distinguished with both rifle and pistol, and a member of the President’s Hundred. He also served for six years in the Army Reserve Military Police as a small arms instructor and a member of the U.S. Army Reserve shooting team. He was recalled to active duty in 2003 to train reservists being deployed to Iraq and Iraqi civilian officials.

Mr. Goodrich has a Master of Public Administration degree from San José State University, and is a Certified Emergency Manager, a FEMA Professional Continuity Practitioner, and a FEMA Master Exercise Practitioner.

TECHNICAL

Authors: Frances L. Edwards, M.U.P., Ph.D., C.E.M., and Daniel C. Goodrich, M.P.A., C.E.M., M.E.P.
Published: February 2014
Keywords: Exercises, Tabletop exercise, HSEEP, Emergency management, PPD-8