IISTPS Report 99-2

Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on Transportation in the Border Areas of the United States: With Emphasis on the California-Mexico Border.

August 1999

George E. Gray

a publication of the
Norman Y. Mineta
International Institute for
Surface Transportation Policy Studies

Created by Congress in 1991

 

Technical Documentation Information

Copyright Page

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Exhibits

Executive Summary

 

 

 

TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION INFORMATION

1. Report No.:     FHWA/CA/OR-99/18  2. Government Accession No.:  3. Recipient Catalog No.:
4. Title and Subtitle:  
Impact of the North American free Trade Agreement on Transportation in the Border Areas of the United States  
5. Report Date:      August 1999 6. Performing Organization Code: 7. Authors: George E. Gray

8. Performing Organization Report No.:      IISTPS 99-2

9. Performing Organization Name and Address:
Norman Y. Mineta International Institute
for Surface Transportation Policy Studies
College of Business BT550
San José State University
San Jose, CA 95192-0219
10. Work Unit No.:      11. Contract or Grant No.:     65W136

12. Sponsoring Agencies Names and Addresses:

California Department of Transportation         
Sacramento, CA 95819                                 

 

 


U.S. Department of Transportation
Research & Special Programs Administration
400 7 th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590-0001

13. Type of Report and Period Covered: 
Final Report
14. 
Sponsoring Agency Code
15.
Supplementary Notes

16. Abstract:
The Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies (IISTPS) at San José State University conducted this study to identify impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas, with emphasis on the California-Baja California border zone. Major focus was placed on the identification of recommendations to the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) to improve the ability of that organization to identify and accelerate short-term implementation of the needed infrastructure improvements.

The subjects covered include a literature review, identification of issues in the form of questions, discussion of the questions, and categorization of the questions as:
1. Issues not appropriate for further consideration in this study,
2. Issues recommended for action at a later date,
3. Issues addressed by others, and
4 Issues recommended for short-term action.

A summary of the categorization of all the questions appears in a matrix at the end of Chapter 4, with the details presented in the body of the report. Finally, Category 4 issues, those recommended for action, are further addressed with recommendations and a brief action plan, if appropriate.

The appendices include a review of work in progress, and several reference documents.

This research project was financially sponsored by the U. S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration and by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).

 

17. Key Words: NAFTA, transportation planning, U.S.-Mexico border, binational planning, international borders, international trade, ports of entry policy, transportation policy, privatization
18. Distribution Statement: No restrictions. 
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161
19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified 
20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified 21. No. of Pages : 284      
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)    22. Price $15.00



Copyright © 1999 by IISTPS
All rights reserved

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 99-65849

To order this publication, please contact the following:
IISTPS
College of Business
San José State University
San Jose , CA 95192-0219
Tel (408) 924-7560
Fax (408) 924-7565
e-mail: iistps@iistps.sjsu.edu
http://transweb.sjsu.edu

 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research project was funded by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

The author wishes to thank the many people who contributed to this study not only for their
substantial assistance but also for their patience. The study was done during a three-year period of dynamic changes in transportation along the U.S.-Mexico border. The changes were the result of NAFTA, the development and eventual approval of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), changes in political administrations on both sides of the border, several other transportation studies, and governmental actions such as U.S. southbound inspections and Mexican divestiture actions (especially in reference to railroads and airports). The resulting changes are not yet complete and Phase II will, therefore, not only address subsequent issues but also review and update the issues developed herein.

The participation of the following organizations was particularly significant.
· California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Headquarters and Districts 7, 11, and 12 
· San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)
· Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG)
· Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG)
· Secretario de Asentamientos, Humanos y Obras Pœblicas del Estado de Baja California (SAHOPE)
· Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB) · City of San Diego
· City of Calexico · Municipalities of Tijuana and Mexicali
· University of California, San Diego -San Diego Dialogue · IISTPS Staff
· Research Associates Art Bauer, Norman Kelley, & John Vargo

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

STUDY ORIGIN

BACKGROUND 

PURPOSE

SCOPE

METHODOLOGY

CURRENT CONDITIONS

TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE IN CALIFORNIA

Highways Described 
Status of the Highways
Public Transportation 
Rail Service 
Airports
Seaports
Goods Movement
Ports of Entry (POEs) 
SANDAG Border Planning Study 

THE KEY AGENCIES INVOLVED

FEDERAL AGENCIES INVOLVED INTRANSPORTATION PLANNING 

OTHER TRANSPORTATION PLANNING ORGANIZATIONS

ISSUE IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION

INTRODUCTION 

DISCUSSION OF GENERAL SUBJECTS 

ISTEA Reauthorization/TEA-21

U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group and the Joint Working Committee 

Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade

Border Zone (BZ) Definition

DISCUSSION OF PLANNING SUBJECTS

Modal Subjects and Issues
Airports 
Ports of Entry 


TABLE 1 STUDY MATRIX 

ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY FOUR ISSUES

Issue 1 
Issue 2 
Issue 3
Issue 6
Issue 8
Issue 10 
Issue 11 
Issue 12
Issue 13
Issue 14
Issue 16
Issue 22
Issue 24
Issue 29 
Issue 30
Issue 32
Issue 39
Issue 45
Issue 46
Issue 47
Issue 51 

COMMENTS ON CATEGORY 1, 2, AND 3 ISSUE 

IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS

ENDNOTES 

EXHIBITS 

APPENDIX A: Works in Progress

APPENDIX B: Technical Memorandum 1

APPENDIX C: CALTRANS DISTRICT 11-- VISIONARY PLAN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

APPENDIX D: BORDER XXI PROGRAM FRAMEWORK DOCUMENT 

APPENDIX E: REQUEST FOR LEGAL COMMENTS

APPENDIX F: IISTPS TESTIMONY OF BZ DEFINITION 

ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS

ANNONATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 



LIST OF EXHIBITS


2.1a District 11 -San Diego County Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance

2.1b District 11 -Imperial County Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance

2.2 International Border Trade Corridors

2.3 Tecate Port at SR-188 & SR-94

2.4 San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway

2.5 International Airports in California

2.6a Calexico West Existing Federal Port

2.6b Calexico East Commercial Port at State Route 7

2.7a San Ysidro Port at Interstate 5

2.7b San Ysidro, CA-Puerto Mexico, B.C. Port of Entry & Traffic Circulation

2.7c Otay Mesa, CA-Mesa de Otay, B.C. Ports of Entry

3.1 Senate Bill 45 Revenue Distribution

4.1a Otay Mesa Commercial Port at State Route 905

4.1b State Route 905

4.1c San Diego County -Programmed and Unprogrammed Projects Serving California/Mexico Border Area and NAFTA

4.2 California-Baja California Border Zone

4.3 Border Zone Indian Nations 

 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


INTRODUCTION
The Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy
Studies (IISTPS) has been fortunate to receive funding, through the federal
Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA) and the California
Department of Transportation (Caltrans), to conduct policy-related activities in
the areas of research, education, and information-sharing to benefit the United
States (U.S.) surface transportation industry.

In recognition of identified and suspected border area transportation needs, in
late 1995 the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the Norman
Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies
(IISTPS) agreed that a review of the NAFTA-induced surface transportation
policy issues along the U.S.-Mexico border was in order. Further, it was agreed
that such a study should emphasize the impacts of NAFTA on the transportation
systems in California, that NAFTA policy issues should be liberally interpreted,
and that emphasis should be given to recommendations that could be implemented
at Caltrans discretion.

This study finds that along the U.S.-Mexico border, the enactment of the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has accelerated the growth of U.S.-
Mexico trade, and indications are that this growth will continue indefinitely.

RESEARCH
The first study task was to perform a literature review as background for the
study. The original product, an annotated bibliography, has been updated and is
included.

The second task was to identify policy issues. Using the literature review as a
base, a number of questions were raised and discussed with representatives of
key agencies. It soon became obvious that the study should focus on issues of
importance along the California-Baja California border since, with the resources
available, it was not possible to consider, in any detail, the issues peculiar to the
other U.S. border states. Consequently, only transportation and infrastructure
items relating to the California-Baja California border were considered.

The resulting 53 issues were assembled in a matrix, which identified the agencies
involved for each issue and their level of involvement. The matrix includes a
categorization of the issues based on the following: 

1. Issues not appropriate for further consideration in this study 
2. Issues recommended for action at a later date
3. Issues addressed by others
4. Issues recommended for implementation in the near future

Of the 53 issues considered in this study, the 21 issues were relegated to category
four based on the evaluation and were further analyzed. The publication includes
discussion of the 21 issues, recommendations, and suggested action plans from
the study. The issues and recommendations are as follows:

ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Issue 1
Regarding TEA-21, Section 1106(d): Should Caltrans undertake a similar study,
especially in relation to the BZ, so as to be in a strong position to react to federal
requests for input in a timely manner?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans undertake a statewide Intermodal Freight Connectors Study to obtain input for the pending federal TEA-21, Section 1106(d) study.

Issue 2
Regarding TEA-21, Sections 1118, 1119, and 1211(I): Should Caltrans review
the State route designations to maximize federal government participation in
providing highway service to existing and proposed border crossings?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans District 11 study the state highway route continuity on Otay Mesa, and, if found logical and feasible, recommend state legislation to simplify route descriptions.

Issue 3
Regarding TEA-21, Section 1213: Should Caltrans press for major involvement
in development of the Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure Study
through the Binational Joint Working Committee (JWC) or by other means?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans take a strong, active position with the U.S. DOT regarding this study.

Issue 6
Should there be State legislation to establish the intent of the State Highway System vis-à-vis international ports of entry? 

Recommendations
It is recommended that the Streets And Highways Code, Article 3, Section 300 be revised to stipulate legislative intent regarding state highway service to international ports of entry within the state and further that all state highway routes that originate at the California-Baja California border be legislatively established as beginning at the international border or the boundary of the federal port of entry.

Issue 8
Should the California Border Zone (BZ) be defined by state legislation?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans District 11 include in its submittal for statute update. The border zone is defined as the area between the California-Baja California international border and a parallel line 100 km north.

Issue 10
How can the California-Baja California border zone transportation planning be improved?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans work with the BBTAC to develop a bistate transportation planning process.

Issue 11
Should Caltrans become more involved in the EPA Border XXI Program?

Recommendation
To improve binational transportation coordination, it is recommended that Caltrans, in cooperation with SANDAG and SCAG, work with the GNEB to address the transportation issues raised in the EPA U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program and similar border region programs monitored by the GNEB.

Issue 12
Should the California Department of Transportation obtain a legal opinion of its role in dealing with Indian Nations while fulfilling its transportation responsibilities?

Recommendation
It is recommended that the California Department of Transportation request a legal opinion of the department's role and its responsibilities in regard to the Indian Nations directly affected by the department's projects. 

Issue 13
Should the California Department of Transportation take an active role in the development of the SCAG proposed Southwest Passage, and work with the other U.S.-Mexico border states to extend the Southwest Passage to cover the total border area from the California coast to the Texas gulf?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans work with SCAG and others to encourage the development and extension of the Southwest Passage as established in TEA-21, Section 1211(I)(34).

Issue 14
Should Caltrans suggest legislation to strengthen the BTTAC organization?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans, in cooperation with SANDAG and SCAG, seriously review the present BTTAC and develop suggested improvements to strengthen the BTTAC organization to better accomplish its goals.

Issue 16
Should Caltrans pursue broader legislation to promote additional toll roads?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans encourage legislation to allow either public or private toll roads within the border zone.

Issue 22
Should Caltrans proceed with the environmental studies as soon as the present corridor preservation study for Route 11 is complete?

Recommendation
Considering the long lead time for project environmental clearance, it is recommended that Caltrans commence environmental studies for this route as soon as the corridor preservation study is completed and accepted. Caltrans should also request that the GSA begin the process to authorize the required new POE.

Issue 24
Is it reasonable to make Route 11 part of Route 125 and to include it in the existing privatization project as a toll road?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans determine if this route can be included within the existing privatization franchise. 

Issue 29
Should a reassessment of the designations for Routes 11 and 125 be undertaken in the Otay Mesa area?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans reassess the route designations on Otay Mesa and, if found appropriate, request legislative changes.

Issue 30
Should the State encourage SANDAG and SCAG to undertake studies of the public transportation service connections within California at the U.S.-Mexico border (including van, taxi, airport limousine, and intercity bus service)?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans urge that SCAG, IVAG, and SANDAG undertake a coordinated binational public transportation study of the California-Baja California area, focusing on coordination of the U.S. and Mexican systems.

Issue 32
How can U.S. American Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements be implemented for binational pedestrian trips? (Mexico has no comparable program for elderly/handicapped users.)

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans confirm with the GSA their plans for POE ADA conformance and determine standards, if any, for accommodating the disabled at border connection points within Mexico.

Issue 39
Should the state pursue legislation to provide that all international airports be served by the State Highway System, including state highway service to Lindbergh Field in San Diego and the Calexico International Airport?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans study the state highway access at Lindbergh Field and Calexico International to determine traffic service adequacy and to take appropriate action.

Issue 45
Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at the Calexico non- commercial POE be mitigated at reasonable cost?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans investigate or request an investigation of the air quality at this POE. 

Issue 46
Is immediate action needed to assure that the inactive Calexico commercial POE remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

Recommendation
It is recommended that:
1. Caltrans inform the GSA of interest in this property and request that the state have first refusal on its possible disposal.
2. Caltrans contact all appropriate parties to determine possible future transportation use of the property.

Issue 47
Is action needed to assure that the Virginia Avenue property in San Diego remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

Recommendation
It is recommended that the State of California inform the GSA of its desire to have first right of refusal for ownership of the federal Virginia Avenue property.

Issue 51
Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at San Ysidro Port of Entry be mitigated?

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans foster the undertaking of an air quality study at the San Ysidro vehicle POE.

CONCLUSION
Most of the issues recommended for near future implementation call for Caltrans to initiate the actions, which range from proposing legislation to clarifying existing State statutes, to undertaking extensive studies of a particular issue.

A follow-up study will reconsider the issues identified in this study as well as address additional issues and assist Caltrans with the development of action plans for the 21 Category 4 issues. 


 STUDY ORIGIN

BACKGROUND
The settlement of the U.S.-Mexico war by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 created a boundary with Mexico that, with the exception of the 1854 Gadsden Purchase to expand Arizona and New Mexico has adequately served both nations' interests. The original legally established border-access points have multiplied slowly over the years. Although there were border violation problems, mostly related to political turmoil, the commercial demands for ports of entry into the U.S. from Mexico were not a major factor until the latter half of the twentieth century. Trade and tourism with Mexico began robust growth in the 1960s. This growth began to change the needs for ports of entry, especially in Texas and California. In California, for instance, the growth led to studies on relieving congestion at the major Port of Entry (POE) of San Ysidro south of San Diego. These studies ultimately resulted in the opening of the Otay Mesa POE about seven miles east of San Ysidro in 1984.

Meanwhile, restrictions to free trade between the U.S. and Mexico were being liberalized. In 1966 two Mexican cabinet officials agreed to relax Mexico's strict foreign investment requirements as well as to liberalize certain customs and immigration laws. In 1971 this agreement was formalized into Mexican law as the Border Industrialization Program. These changes led to the maquiladoras industry, whereby materials imported into Mexico from the United States are assembled or manufactured in Mexico for export back to the United States with custom fees charged only on the increased product value. Mexican trade growth accelerated even further with the Mexican acceptance of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986. U.S. exports to the maquiladora in Mexico, as a percent of total exports, grew from 12 percent in 1980 to 41 percent in 1992. In the same period maquiladora imports to the United States grew from 20 percent to 52 percent of the import trade. 1 Maquiladora trade has grown even more since the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) by Canada, the United States, and Mexico on December 17, 1992.

Even prior to NAFTA, the growth of the maquiladora industries and tourism, especially in the last decade, had already exposed problems in the existing border transportation systems. However, most of the increased traffic from the maquiladoras was associated with goods that had to be inspected at the border. 

Accommodating tourists was not considered as important. The need for increasing capacity, providing for equipment inspections, and improving inspection and processing procedures were therefore not deemed a major concern. The picture Study Origin changed rapidly with the passage of NAFTA. In retrospect, the normal pre-NAFTA growth of trade and tourism would have called for a reassessment of existing facilities, albeit at a more leisurely pace.

NAFTA, with its liberalization of trade regulation and the growth of the maquiladoras and tourism, over-taxed the transportation infrastructure along the U.S.-Mexico border at many locations. Problems of adequate vehicle inspections, crossing delays caused by traffic congestion, automobile pollution, and out-of-direction travel became major concerns.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the growing discussions of a possible NAFTA, the transportation agencies of the U.S.-Mexico border states began to reassess the needs for transportation infrastructure. Because passage of NAFTA was uncertain, these studies moved slowly until the actual signing in late 1992. However, transportation planning during this period was furthered by the provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, specifically by the requirements of Sections 1089 and 6015, which called for, an assessment of transportation infrastruc-ture at the border. The resulting 1994 Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) study 2 , as presented to Congress pointed out the need for improved port of entry (POE) performance and access.
Increased NAFTA-induced trade and continued growth of tourism and border-area population, attributed largely to the maquiladora industry, have exacerbated the need for transportation service improvements. If this is not adequately addressed, transportation experts in both the public and private sectors agree that the lack of adequate surface transportation infrastructure along the U.S.-Mexico border will inhibit the continued trade growth between the two countries and, therefore, their economic well-being.

The implementation of border transportation facilities, especially binational facilities, is a long and complicated process that can easily consume ten years between identified need and project completion. This manifests the need for early future needs identification to allow implementation of desired infrastructure in a timely manner.

PURPOSE
In recognition of identified and suspected border area transportation needs, in late 1995 the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies (IISTPS) agreed that a review of the NAFTA-induced surface transportation policy issues along the U.S.-Mexico border was in order. Further, it was agreed that such a study should emphasize the impacts of NAFTA on the transportation systems in California, that NAFTA policy issues should be liberally interpreted,  and that emphasis should be given to recommendations that could be implemented at Caltrans' discretion. This report culminates that study and identifies recommended short-term actions largely directed towards Caltrans.

SCOPE
The original study agreement called for performing five tasks:
TASK 1
A literature review, including popular press, works in progress and omissions in the documentation.
Product: a summary of current literature.

TASK 2
Identify policy-related issues (as distinguished from technical or operational issues).
Product: a description of the key issues, the agencies involved, and the implications.

TASK 3
Identify the opportunities and challenges for interstate and international  collaboration.
Product: a refined description of the key issues, the agencies involved, and the implications.

TASK 4
Identify areas where State authority may be compromised or enhanced by NAFTA implementation, with recommendations for action.
Product: a description of the possible impacts on the State of California, with recommendations for action.

TASK 5
Draft and final reports.
Product: a draft report submitted to IISTPS for peer-review revision and publication.

All the above tasks, except for Task 5--the final report--were completed and submitted as interim reports by March 1998. The final report was delayed pending reauthorization of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The reauthorization was accomplished with the President's signing of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) on June 9, 1998.

This study concentrates on issues which can be implemented by Caltrans in the short term (one to five years).

This report is a revision of a document released on March 30, 1998. It includes updated material on the implications and opportunities resulting from the enactment of TEA-21. 

METHODOLOGY
The first order of work was to compile an annotated bibliography of documents related to the study. This was submitted to Caltrans. Then, using the bibliography as a springboard, many interviews were held with experts in the U.S.-Mexico transportation sector. These were representatives of the federal, state, county, and city levels of government as well as the private sector, including chambers of commerce and academia. More than 100 interview were made and numerous meetings of various organizations were attended.

Based on these interviews and meetings, a basic listing of topics, including both potential issues and current actions, was formulated and shared with Caltrans, the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG), the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), the Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG), the City of San Diego, the County of San Diego, the County of Imperial, and the San Diego Dialogue to obtain their comments and suggestions on the identified topics. The resultant material comprises the core of the study and was the basis of two interim reports. The interim reports categorized the major topics and identified the issues recommended for short-term implementation by Caltrans.

Subsequently, these recommendations were submitted as a draft final report to the key contacts in Caltrans, SANDAG, SCAG, City of San Diego, and San Diego Dialogue, for their review and comment. This final report incorporates their reviews, adds some new material, mostly concerning the new programs resulting from passage of TEA-21, and lays the groundwork for the future study.

TEAM
The study team was composed of IISTPS Research Associates, George Gray, team leader, and Arthur Bauer, with valuable input from the IISTPS Research Director, William Derrick. The following individuals contributed substantially to the study and could be considered as ad hoc team members; although, they are not responsible for the contents of this report.

California Department of Transportation, District 11
Gary Gallegos -Director
Carl West -Deputy Director
Gene Pound -Transportation Planning, now retired
Sergio Pallares -International Border Studies
Mark Baza -Transportation Planning
Benita Gray -Volunteer Librarian 
City of San Diego
Larry Van Wey -Senior Caltrans Coordinator
San Diego Association of Governments
Nan Valerio -Senior Regional Planner
San Diego Dialogue
Dr. Charles Nathanson, Director
The staff involved in the completion of the Annotated Bibliography are as given
in the introduction to that section. 


CURRENT CONDITIONS


TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE IN CALIFORNIA
The status of the current transportation infrastructure in California is summarized in the following sections: designated road systems, highways, public transportation, rail service, seaports, goods movement, and ports of entry. This chapter also discusses several recently completed or on-going studies of the border area transportation systems.

Designated Road Systems
Over the years, the system of streets, roads, and highways within the State has been identified in a number of ways. Some of the categories are of little consequence or are mainly descriptive (e.g., Blue Star Memorial Highways and State Scenic Highways). Several categories, however, determine funding availability. A particular state route may be included in several of the different funding systems.

In general, local streets are under the jurisdiction of cities, rural roads under county government and highways under state control. Except for the Otay Mesa Port of Entry in the City of San Diego, all of the existing POEs in California are directly served by the State Highway System (SHS). The SHS was established by state legislation and it is intended that the routes of the State Highway System Reserve the state's heavily traveled rural and urban corridors, that they connect the communities and regions of the state, and that they serve the state's economy by connecting centers of commerce, industry, agriculture, mineral wealth, and recreation.3 Major highways serving the border area are shown in Exhibit 2.1a and b.

The major systems that are considered in this study are:

· Freeway and Expressway System 
· National Highway System
· Interregional Road System
· Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance
· NAFTA Network and International Border Trade Corridor Program
· Southwest Passage System

Freeway and Expressway System (F&E)
This system was established by California state legislation and includes most major state routes. In the border zone (BZ), the significant routes are Interstate routes I-5, I-8, and I-15, state routes SR-56 and SR-125, a portion of SR-94, and  the portion of SR 905 from east of Interstate 5 to the international boundary south of Brown Field. It is the legislative intent that the routes in the F&E system be constructed as freeways or expressways.

National Highway System (NHS)
The NHS was authorized by the 1991 ISTEA and its designated routes include all the routes in the Interstate system and some urban and rural routes. This system was established by federal legislation in 1995. State routes in this system that affect the border are Interstate routes I-5, I-8, and I-15 and state routes SR- 7, SR-94, SR-125 (from SR-905 to Interstate 8), SR-186, SR-188, and the eastern portion of SR-905. SR-11 is not yet on the NHS system, but meets the criteria for inclusion. Priority federal funding of routes on the NHS system is provided by ISTEA reauthorization legislation.

Interregional Road System (IRRS)
This system is established by California state legislation and identifies "projects  on which construction can be started not later than June 30, 2000, which will provide the most adequate interregional system to all economic centers of the state." 4 Routes on this system that affect the border are Interstate routes I-5, I-8 and I-15 and state routes SR-94, SR-188, and SR-905 outside the urban limits of San Diego.

Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance (ICES) System
This network was established by California state legislation to emphasize the corridors that are most essential to the California economy in terms of national and international trade. (See Exhibits 2.1a and 2.1b.) Routes in this system are designed to provide access between major freight intermodal facilities and to serve freight traffic. Routes in this system include Interstate Routes I-5, I-8, I- 15, I-805, and I-905 and State Routes SR-7 and SR-111.

NAFTA Network and International Border Trade Corridor (IBTC)
The NAFTA network was identified by Caltrans in 1996 as routes of statewide significance to facilitate and increase trade, ensure safe cross-border trucking, and to improve the multimodal transportation network leading to the major international border crossings (Exhibit 2.2). The network consists of highways and rail services intended to provide for the movement of both goods and people.

The IBTC program has replaced the NAFTA Network. It is basically the same system and has the same goal of better service to the POEs. (See Exhibit 2.2 for a map of this system.) 

Southwest Passage (SP) System
The Southwest Passage System was established by the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) and has been endorsed by the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). This system is designated to improve goods movements between the Southern California coast and the Gulf coast of Texas. Interstate 8 is the major element of this network within the California BZ. This system is designated in the TEA-21 legislation for inclusion in the priority corridors program.

High Priority Corridors on the National Highway System
This program was established by Section 1105 of ISTEA to assure adequate service to meet regional travel and economic needs. It was felt that "the development of transportation corridors is the most efficient and effective way of integrating regions and improving efficiency and safety of commerce and travel and further promoting economic development."5 The original program included I-15. TEA-21 added the portion of Interstate 5 within the BZ and the portion of "State Route 905 between Interstate Route 5 and the Otay Mesa Port of Entry" and "I-8 from San Diego to the Arizona State line" to this system.6

Highways Described
With few exceptions, the highway system in the California BZ is mature and ubiquitous although continued growth of the area is putting increased pressure on the system and congestion continues to spread. The highway system within the BZ of Baja California is not as developed as it is on the U.S. side but is receiving increased attention from the Mexican government. Generally, highways in Mexico can be constructed in a much shorter time than in the U.S.

Status of the Highways
The following section describes the major routes and their status within the BZ that serve the California border POEs either directly or indirectly. (See Exhibit 2.2.)

Interstate 5
Legislative description: "Route 5 is from the international boundary near Tijuana to the Oregon state line via National City, San Diego, Los Angeles..."7

Status: This route is an existing full freeway on the Interstate and National Highway Systems. Through the border zone, the only major project contemplated in the near future is the major widening of I-5 at the I-805 Sorrento Valley junction, including the SR-56 interchange.

At the international border with Mexico, there is the possibility of modifications to the route to improve the binational traffic problems at the POE to provide for increased inspections of southbound traffic and especially to improve traffic conditions in Tijuana. The now abandoned Virginia Avenue General Services Administration (GSA) property could be used to accommodate rerouting of the southbound lanes of Interstate 5 to improve traffic handling in the City of Tijuana.

The Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Feasibility Study covers this possible project
and includes several alternatives.8 , and the Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Feasibility Study by SOHA Engineering for the GSA presents the federal proposal
for the project.9

The latter study recommends shifting the southbound lanes of Interstate 5 to accommodate requirements for identification of each alien leaving the country. This Congressional mandate requires a new set of facilities for southbound inspections, including primary inspection booths and secondary inspection areas, but these requirements may be changed by pending legislation. To complicate the situation, a private sector proposal called the "International Gateway of the Americas" project, which would include this area, is being developed. It is questionable whether this project, as proposed, will adequately accommodate traffic growth at this POE for more than a few years. Departments within the
City of San Diego and others, including Caltrans, are calling for a binational traffic study in order to assure the adequacy of this and other proposed developments.

State Route 7
Legislative description: "Route 7 is from the northerly boundary of the Federal Port of Entry, a new International Border crossing near Calexico, to Route 8 near El Centro." 10

Status: The portion of this route north of the East Calexico POE is a recently completed four-lane conventional highway between the POE and SR-98. The portion north of SR-98 to SR-8 is not constructed, but is now fully funded utilizing state and federal funding sources.

Interstate 8
Legislative description: "Route 8 is from:

(a) Sunset Cliffs Boulevard to Route 5 in San Diego.
(b) Route 5 in San Diego to Yuma via El Centro."11 
Status: This route is fully developed as an Interstate freeway and is on the NHS system. No major projects on this route are contemplated in the foreseeable future. 

However, a new POE near Jacumba in the U.S. and Jaquene, Mexico, with highway connections between this route and Mexico's Route 2 (presently being upgraded to a toll road between Tecate and Mexicali) may be feasible and warranted to improve traffic circulation and redundancy in this mountainous portion of the region. (See Exhibit 2.2.)

State Route 11
Legislative authority: "Route 11 is from the northerly border of the new Federal Port of Entry and east of the Otay Mesa Port of Entry to near the junction of Route 125 and Route 905." 12

Status: This route was added to the State Highway System in 1994 and is unconstructed, as is "the new Federal Port of Entry." It is intended as a future route to a POE to accommodate border traffic growth in the San Diego-Tijuana area. (See Exhibit 2.2.) Caltrans is currently developing a corridor preservation study to protect the route alignment from inordinate development. This is a needed first step for implementing the route.

State Route 15
Legislative description:
"
Route 15 is from:
(a) Route 5 in San Diego to Route 8.
(b) Route 8 to the Nevada state line near Stateline, Nevada via the vicinity of Temecula, Corona, Ontario, Victorville, and Barstow."13

Status: The last freeway portion of this route is currently under construction in the City of San Diego. Existing freeway portions of the route, especially between SR-163 and SR-78 are heavily congested in peak hours. Caltrans is presently developing alternative plans to address this problem. The route is mentioned here in connection with possible extension of SR 125 north of SR-56, and it is included in the high-priority corridors on the National Highway System as established by ISTEA and perpetuated by TEA-21.

State Route 56
Legislative description: "Route 56 is from Route 5 north of La Jolla to Route
67."14 

Status: The short segments from near SR-5 to two miles east and from Black Mountain Road to Route 15 exist as sections of freeway. The remainder of the route is unconstructed. There is considerable pressure to construct the portion of the route between I-5 and I-15 soon to provide congestion relief and to shorten many trips between the inland north San Diego area and the coast. The City of San Diego is progressing with environmental studies for this work, but complete funding is not in place, although TEA-21 provides some potential funding. Therefore, the City is considering staged development, with initial construction as a four-lane expressway. This route is the proposed northern terminus of SR- 125, which is projected to carry significant volumes of border-related traffic and, as such, is needed to tie I-5 and I-15 to future SR-125.

State Routes 94 and 188
Legislative descriptions: "Route 94 is from Route 5 near San Diego to Route 8 west of Jacumba via Campo, and Route 188 is from the international boundary near Tecate to Route 94."15

Status: Both routes are conventional two-lane highways outside the urban areas. SR-94 from I-5 to east of SR-125 is an existing freeway. The western portion of SR-94 and all of SR-188 are in mountainous terrain. The cost to provide four lanes for SR-188 and SR-94 west of the junction of SR-54 is estimated to be from $215 million to $320 million in current dollars. Heavy truck traffic on these two routes is growing, spurred by the growth of the number of maquiladora plants in the Tecate area. (See Exhibit 2.3.)

Recent legislation calls for Caltrans and the California Highway Patrol to study whether trucks hauling trailers are a safety hazard for school buses on parts of SR-94. 16

State Route 111
Legislative description: Route 11 has three legislative sections. The applicable section (a) is codified as follows:
"
Route 11 is from:
(a) The international boundary south of Calexico to Route 78 near Brawley, passing east of Heber."

Status: This route is being updated as traffic growth occurs. It presents no significant problems at this time except, as discussed later, in connection with its point of origin being the actual border with Mexico and not the northerly boundary of the Calexico West POE.

State Route 125
Legislative description: "Route 125 is from:

(a) Route 905 near Brown Field to Route 54.
(b) Route 54 to Route 94 near La Mesa.
(c) Route 94 near La Mesa to Route 56."17 

Status: Section (a) does not presently exist. The northern end of this segment is to be funded from the County of San Diego half-cent sales tax fund and federal funds, while the eleven-mile majority of this section is proposed as a privatized toll road under the authority of state legislation allowing a franchise agreement. The Environmental Impact Statement and the Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for this section are nearing federal approval.

Section (b) is currently being designed and will be constructed from San Diego County's half-cent sales tax fund and with state and federal highway funds.

Section (c) has been built, is being programmed, or is under construction to SR- 52. North of SR-52, it is not constructed and, at present, planning for this segment has not been funded.

State Route 125 is a major proposed highway connection that would directly link the Otay Mesa crossing with the San Diego region's interstate freeway network. The total cost of SR 125 improvements will be approximately $1 billion. Much of the rationale for the improvements to SR 125, especially the toll portion, is to open land for development in the South Bay area of San Diego County. Nevertheless, the improvements will provide border-oriented trucking with an efficient route to the international crossing, relieving traffic on adjacent highways.

State Route 186
Legislative description: "Route 186 is from the international boundary near lgodones to Route 8."18 

Status: This route exists as a conventional highway within the Quechan Indian Nation. The use of this route is growing, especially in the winter when many vacationing people seek services in the Mexican border town of Algodones.

The municipal government of Mexicali is considering modification of the traffic routing in Algodones, including a new road on the east side of town along the Colorado River. They propose a new POE on this route, which would, on the U.S. side of the border, be between the Alamo and Colorado Rivers and necessitate a new road between this proposed POE and Route 186 through the Quechan Indian Nation.

State Route 905
Legislative description: "Route 905 is from:

(a) the International Boundary near Border Field northeasterly to Route 5.
(b) Route 5 near the south end of San Diego Bay to the International Boundary southerly of Brown Field."19 

The (a) portion of this route as described is unconstructed and, as it would traverse the environmentally sensitive Tijuana River flood plain, its eventual construction is doubtful.

The other portion is partly constructed. From I-5 to east of Route 805, it is a freeway. From that point to about one mile north of the international border is unconstructed. The last mile of the route to the POE is an expressway. The unconstructed central portion of this route is currently under design and environmental studies. Partial funding for the proposed eventual six-lane full freeway is included in TEA-21. Upon completion, the route will be designated a part of the Interstate system and signed as I-905 and will link the POE to I-5 and I-05 as well as the proposed SR-125 private toll road. The (a) portion of the
legislative description of the route is included in the priority corridor program in Section 1105 of TEA-21.

Public Transportation
In general, urban areas within the border zone of California are well-served by public transportation. This study will confine itself to identification of public transportation issues regarding public services to the border POEs and coordination with similar services in Baja California.

Except for the San Ysidro-El Chaparral POE of the San Diego-Tijuana complex and the POE in Calexico, the POEs on the California-Baja California border are underserved by public transportation. Even the major POE at San Ysidro has poor connections between the public transportation services in the two countries. The Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB) provides light rail and bus services to this crossing and has proposed upgrading the area for better service.

The "International Gateway of the Americas" proposal by the private sector for San Ysidro shows promise to upgrade this major U.S.-Mexico border crossing. Such a development may preclude needed transportation improvements to upgrade the traffic and public transportation service.

A City of Tijuana proposed study of transportation in their center city is expected to address public transportation needs at length and to include an LRT system.

Public transit services to the Otay Mesa area, including the POE, have recently been upgraded by MTDB and future proposals for the area include light rail service.

With the possible exception of Calexico-Mexicali public transit service to the other POEs is relatively unimportant because there is low demand for public transit at those facilities. 

Rail Service
At present, the California-Baja California border is served by two railroads: the Union Pacific (UP), which has a connection to the Mexican railroad system in downtown Calexico; and the MTDB-owned San Diego and Arizona Eastern (SD&AE) within California, which is operated under contract by the San Diego and Imperial Valley (SDIV) railroad. The SDIV crisscrosses the border (Exhibit 2.5) but does not provide service east of Jacumba because of damaged track between that point and the connection to the UP system at Plaster City. The Mexican portion of the route is currently owned by the federal government of Mexico.

A study by Caltrans in 1995, Calexico/Coachella Valley/Los Angeles Rail Corridor Study, Final Draft 20 , found that passenger rail service in this corridor should be pursued under certain conditions. (See the Annotated Bibliography.) After this study was written the UP purchased the Southern Pacific (SP) and, in collaboration with Mexican interests, was awarded a franchise by the Mexican Government to operate the newly created Pacific Northern rail system in Mexico. In February 1998 this system was joined to the UP tracks at Calexico. The privatization of this portion of the Mexican railways, known as Ferromex, bodes favorably for increased freight and passenger rail services through Calexico. Passenger service already exists from Mexicali to Mexico City, but may be modified with the privatization.

A 1996 SANDAG report titled, Economic Feasibility Study of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway 21 has recommended reopening the closed portion of this service and funding for this is being sought. This SANDAG report also investigated, but recommends against, possible rail service via spur track to Otay Mesa. (See the Annotated Bibliography.) This recommendation may need to be reevaluated if a suggested rail connection between the Mexican Port of Ensenada and the existing rail line is implemented. SANDAG has been recently funded to update and expand the marketing portion of this 1996 study.

The Mexican government previously requested bids for the purchase of the portion of this line located in Mexico but was unable to reach agreement with either of the two bidders. It is expected that a second bidding will be offered in early 1999.

TEA-21 provides funds for the construction of a multimodal terminal on the SD&AE.

At present, San Diego rail service to the Los Angeles area is provided only by Burlington Northern-Santa Fe (BNSF). This lack of rail competition has been cited by many as an impediment to the growth of commerce and industry and to the Port of San Diego.22 

Airports
A listing of the California airports which provide international service is given in Exhibit 2.5.

In very general terms, airports will be impacted by NAFTA mostly in the expected growth of air cargo.

Several of the state's international airports are experiencing severe growing pains, especially Los Angeles International and Ontario International. Opportunities for air cargo growth at some of the outlying facilities, such as Brown Field in San Diego and Calexico International, are apparent. A study of a possible cross-border air terminal on Otay Mesa is currently underway. This study considers the feasibility of a joint San Diego-Tijuana effort to create an airport network from San DiegoÕs Lindbergh Field to TijuanaÕs Rodriguez Field and increasing cargo and general aviation activities at Brown Field on Otay Mesa.

The issue of future airports for the San Diego area has been discussed for many years. In our judgment, the need for added passenger and cargo air service in the San Diego-Tijuana area should be addressed binationally to maximize investment, and to improve capacity, effectiveness and efficiency.

Seaports
The Los Angeles/Long Beach Seaport complex is a key node in the flow of imports and exports between the Far East and the U.S. Although these seaports are outside the BZ, their problems are influenced by trade between the U.S. and Mexico. An in-depth analysis of seaports is beyond the resources of this study but issues that involve seaports and the highway system are covered when appropriate.

Goods Movement
The Caltrans Division of Transportation Planning is working on a study entitled, Goods Movement Transportation System Issues 23 . We did not include that element of NAFTA impact on the California BZ in this study.

However, it should be noted that the goals of Caltrans as presented in the State Transportation Plan, the decisions of local governments regarding land use, and the actions of other state and local governmental agencies are not adequately coordinated to provide complete solutions to goods transportation issues.

Section 1106(d) of TEA-21 calls for an Intermodal Freight Connectors Study to be completed by the Secretary of Transportation and presented to Congress within  two years of the ActÕs passage. This study is to review the National Highway System (NHS) connections to serve seaports, airports, and other intermodal freight transportation facilities. The study is to identify highway connector impediments to the "efficient movement of freight, including movements of freight between modes" 24 and to include recommendations.

Ports of Entry (POEs)
The POE complexes along the California-Baja California border are Andrade- Algodones, Calexico-Mexicali, Tecate-Tecate, and San Diego-Tijuana. Two of the complexes have more than one crossing.

Andrade-Algodones POE
This POE is served by Route 186, a conventional two-lane highway that runs through the Quechan Nation. This is a minor POE with limited service hours.
Only local commercial traffic is accommodated. In the last few years, pedestrian and auto use of this crossing has shown a healthy growth, especially in winter when vacationing U.S. and Canadian visitors seek services in the Mexican town of Algodones. The U.S. governmentÕs General Services Adminis-tration (GSA) has limited funding available for improving this facility.

Calexico-Mexicali POE
The Calexico-Mexicali POE complex includes two crossings, one in the central district of Calexico (Exhibit 2.6a) and one in the county area about seven miles easterly (Exhibit 2.6b). This second crossing is a new facility, which serves all the commercial traffic as well as auto crossings. Previously, commercial traffic was serviced adjacent to the crossing in  central Calexico.

The complex in Calexico includes a rail connection between the Union Pacific and what was the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico (FNM) Pacific Northern line and is now the private railroad, Ferromex.

Tecate-Tecate POE
The Tecate-Tecate POE (Exhibit 2.3) currently consists of a single crossing near the center of the Mexican City of Tecate. A new U.S. inspection facility is expected to be under construction soon. There have been coordination problems in providing the road connection to this new facility, but these problems are near esolution. Hours of service and the StateÕs position of discouraging commercial use of this crossing because of safety concerns on State Routes 188 and 94 are the major issues related to this POE.

San Diego-Tijuana POE
The San Diego-Tijuana POE complex includes three major operating elements, one closed facility, and one proposed facility. The closed facility (Exhibit 2.7a) 3 is the commercial POE at Virginia Avenue, west of Highway I-5. This property remains in the GSA inventory. Caltrans, SANDAG, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB), the City of San Diego, and the private sector, as well as the City of Tijuana, are involved in determining the best use of this property.

The San Ysidro-Puerto Mexico portion of this POE complex (Exhibit 2.7b) is said to be the busiest binational crossing in the world (based on person crossings). Waits of twenty minutes for northbound autos are the rule, but longer waits are common. Northbound traffic crossing into the U.S. from Mexico often backs up into the City of Tijuana street system at peak periods. This congestion causes heightened air pollution and noise. Agencies on both sides of the border have efforts underway to improve the situation.

The southbound traffic backup to cross into Mexico is an infrequent problem. However, recently enacted federal legislation which requires U.S. recording of identification of each alien leaving the country significantly changes the inspection facility needs for southbound traffic.

The Otay Mesa-Mesa de Otay crossing (Exhibit 2.7c) operates with less backup and southbound lanes often experience no delay at all. The northbound facility is the site of several demonstration programs utilizing advanced technology to increase vehicle throughput.

The Otay Mesa Commercial POE completes the complex. It also is the site of several projects to improve operations., including a direct connection to the nearby California Highway Patrol vehicle inspection facility.

The entire complex is well-documented in the recently completed Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study, specifically in Task 3: Most Significant Ports of Entry Case Study: San Diego-Tijuana Port of Entry System. 25

SANDAG Border Planning Study
In 1994 SANDAG contracted with the consultant firm of Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. (HR&A) to conduct a study entitled The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. The study was significant and most of its findings are still germane. (See Annotated Bibliography.)

Among other things, the HR&A reports identified four institutional options for improving transportation planning coordination in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate area. They are as follows: 
· establishing a binational border transportation working group,
· expanding SANDAGÕs role to more explicitly encompass cross-border policy planning and implementation, 
· establishing a San Diego/Tijuana binational border transportation policy commission, and
· establishing a San Diego land port authority.26 
The first of these options has been implemented to some extent with the establishment of the Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee (BTTAC).

These four options could also be applied to the remainder of the SANDAG portion of the border (San Diego County) and modified to apply to the SCAG portion of the border (Imperial County). 


THE KEY AGENCIES INVOLVED

FEDERAL AGENCIES INVOLVED IN TRANSPORTATION
PLANNING

The federal government is a major source of funding for state transportation planning and for the implementation of specific projects. Although it does not take direct responsibility for transportation planning, federal legislation provides overall requirements that must be met for state and local governments to qualify for federal funds. However, the federal government does have primary responsibility for the POE facilities at the border crossings. These facilities often have direct impacts on nearby highways. The access routes are usually built and managed by state or local governments. This bifurcation of authority and responsibility has created significant problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, including the California-Baja California border crossings.

The General Services Administration
The (GSA), an independent federal agency, has prime responsibility for the physical port of entry facilities and considers the POE operating agencies as its major clients. This has often been to the detriment of adequate access to and from the facilities. The GSAÕs major planning tool for POEs is a ten-project nationwide priority list which is periodically updated. At present, the states are not part of the ten-project selection process, and since GSA does not usually include adequate off-property egress facilities in their project development, this has led to several significant traffic service problems.

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, operates under U.S. Code 23. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nationÕs highway system is safe, meets defense needs, and provides for the movement of goods and services efficiently and economically, and that due consideration is given to the systemÕs impacts on the physical, social, and economic environment. Its principal responsibilities include

· administering federal-aid funding programs; 
· promoting safety and environmental aspects;
· providing technical assistance; 
· directing research and development programs;
· providing basic data, training, and technology information; 
· administering a Motor Safety Assistance Program, which includes safety inspections of trucks and buses; and
· directly administering federal highways in national parks, monuments, forests, and Indian reservations.

Good Neighbor Environmental Board
The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) was established by federal legislation and reports biannually to Congress. The GNEB recognizes that, "An interagency process is needed that provides more authority to agencies to coordinate and integrate their border program and project activities, to budget jointly for cooperative projects, to leverage appropriations, to develop interagency funding agreements, to provide multi-agency grants, and to permit utilization of federal funds in both countries to make projects truly binational and sustainable." 27

An extensive program to coordinate environmental binational programs has been implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its Mexican counterpart. Its goals, as reported in the U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program Executive Summary of October 1996, are "to achieve a clean environment, protect public health and natural resources, and encourage sustainable development." 28

An overall description and background of this effort follows:
The Border XXI Program (Border XXI or Program) is an innovative binational effort which brings together the diverse U.S. and Mexican federal entities responsible for the border environment to work cooperatively toward sustainable development through protection of human health and the environment and proper management of natural resources in both countries.29

In the Background portion of this document, it states:
In order to protect, improve, and conserve the environment of the border region, in 1983 both governments signed the Agreement for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) which provided a formal foundation for cooperative environmental efforts. The La Paz Agreement defined the border region as the area lying 100 kilometers to the north and south of the U.S.-Mexico boundary.

In February of 1992, the environmental authorities of both governments released the Integrated Environmental Plan for the Mexican-U.S. Border Area (IBEP). As the next phase of binational planning the Border XXI Program builds on the efforts of the IBEP and increases the scope to include environmental health and natural resource issues. 

In 1993, U.S.-Mexico cooperative activities were further enhanced by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and related environmental agreements. In one such agreement, the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank) were created to develop, certify, and finance environmental infrastructure projects in the border area between the U.S. and Mexico. 30

The GNEB advises the Border XXI Program.
U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group The U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group (BBBCG), a U.S.-Mexico committee, formed in 1983, meets semi-annually to consider border crossing and facility problems. U.S. members are the State Department (which shares the chair with its Mexican counterpart), the General Services Administration, the Customs Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, the International Boundary and Water Commission, the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Agriculture. The representatives of both nations comprise the voting membership with state representatives participating as observers only.

The first portion of their biannual meetings is open to the public and allows project sponsors, including state and local governments, to present information or proposals. The second part is not open to the public and considers technical issues. Prior to the meetings of this binational group, the U.S. participants meet as a U.S. Interagency Working Group on Bridges and Border Crossings (IWG), chaired by the Coordinator of U.S.-Mexico Border Affairs, Office of Mexican Affairs, U.S. Department of State. This group coordinates policy, fosters communications, and comments on proposed new or revised POEs along the U.S.-Mexico border. It also serves as staff to the Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group. The IWG allows state participation as observers at some of
their deliberations.

Binational Transportation Planning Joint Working Committee
The Binational Transportation Planning Joint Working Committee (JWC) committee was formed to guide the Barton-Aschman, et. al. study (BBTPP Study). The membership includes the four U.S. and six Mexican states that abut the U.S.-Mexico border, the U.S. Department of State, and the FHWA.

It is recognized that the BBTPP Study did not establish a joint U.S.-Mexico border transportation planning and programming process (the key objective of  the study as envisioned in the Memorandum of Understanding on the Planning Process for Land Transport on Each Side of the Border as signed by the U.S. and Mexico April 29, 1994). The U.S. Joint Working Committee (JWC), which was formed to guide the study, is expected to formulate methods to encourage the U.S. and Mexican involved parties to exchange information, technical data, and improved planning methods, and to take other actions to improve transportation planning.

The future of the Joint Working Committee is not clear. Suggestions have ranged from its abolition to formation of a replacement binational oversight organization with strong federal representation of both nations to further the goals of the BBTPP Study. With the trend towards the delegation of transportation planning and development to lower levels of government or to the private sector in both the U.S. and Mexico, it becomes critical that the lower levels of both governments develop and maintain increased abilities in the field of transportation.

In Baja California there is evidence that this need is recognized at both the state and municipio levels. In California, the State has traditionally played a dominant role in planning, especially of highways, as authorized by state and federal legislation. However, recent state legislation, as discussed later in this report, has significantly altered their responsibilities and the private sector is increasingly involved in providing transportation infrastructure.

In our judgment, TEA-21 does not provide an adequate BZ program for border transportation infrastructure. The future of projects to strengthen trade between the U.S  and Mexico remains clouded, and the piecemeal competitive practices between local governments and even state governments may continue. At present, the California State government as a whole is not a leader in providing for increased trade between the two Californias, and both SCAG and SANDAG have only recently identified the need for increased involvement.

Other Federal Agencies
Other federal agencies are involved in POE implementation, development, operation, and improvement but, with the exception of the Federal Transit Administration, none are directly involved in transportation serving the facilities, and each agency is concerned primarily with issues and problems unique to its statutory authorities. It is important to realize that no single federal agency has overall responsibility to coordinate the federal policies and procedures within a POE. 

OTHER TRANSPORTATION PLANNING ORGANIZATIONS
California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation, commonly known as Caltrans, has primary responsibility for the State's transportation program. Caltrans is authorized under California Government Code 14001 as part of the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency, which reports directly to the Governor.

Caltrans transportation planning activities are concentrated in the various districts with the headquarters planning group serving primarily as an analytical unit, working to assure the state meets federal requirements such as those established by ISTEA and TEA-21.

Within the twelve Districts of Caltrans, project planning and implementation procedures are essentially as stated in the Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. (HR&A) Technical Memorandum #1: Description of the U.S./California and Mexico/Baja California Highway Planning Procedures and Processes, of The International Border Transportation Case Study, and the Task 4 report (The U.S. Transportation Planning and Programming Process) of the Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. and La Empresa, S. de R.L. report. (See the Annotated Bibliography)

As a result of 1997 State legislation (SB 45) the transportation planning and programming process within California is under revision. This bill is a fundamental reform of the prioritization and programming process for state funded investment in new transportation facilities, including State highways. The intent of SB 45 is to simplify the programming process and assign primary responsibility for regional transportation systems to regional agencies such as the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG), the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), and the Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG). It creates both opportunities and risks for the funding of border-related highway facilities. A review of the changes in funding and the prioritization and programming process as they affect the border follows.

Prior to SB 45 the following eight funding programs existed for Caltrans projects:
· Flexible Congestion Relief 
· Interregional Roads
· Urban, Commuter, and Intercity Rail 
· Transportation System Management
· Transit Capital Improvement 
· State-Local Partnership
· Retrofit Soundwalls 
· Grade Separation 
With the enactment of SB 45, the eight program categories have been merged
into two categories,
· the Regional Improvement Program (RIP) and
· the Interregional Improvement Program (IIP).
The legislation also revamps certain aspects of the allocation formulas. Although the North-South split and county distribution formulas remain, the California Transportation Commission (CTC) no longer has a discretionary category of funding. This diminishes the ability of the CTC to influence the allocation of funds to projects.

The new programming process works as follows. First, deductions are made from the State Highway Account (SHA) for Caltrans' annual administrative costs, expenditure for State highway maintenance, operations, and rehabilitation, and highway safety. The remaining funds are then available for capital outlay. SB 45 designates that 75 percent of the remaining SHA funds be committed to the RIP and 25 percent to the IIP. The RIP funds are allocated on the basis of the North-South Split and a guarantee to each county based on a formula that takes into account population and miles of State highways. This latter calculation is referred to as the "County Share." In addition, federal funds that a county may receive for demonstration projects are required to be deducted from its county-share allocation. 31

The Regional Improvement funds are available for programming by regional
transportation planning agencies to the following types of projects:

· state highways; 
· grade separations;
· transportation system management projects; · transportation demand management projects;
· soundwalls; 
· rail transit projects, subject to the provisions of Article XIX of the State Constitution*;
· intermodal facilities; 
· local streets and roads; and
· pedestrian and bicycle facilities.

* Article XIX generally defines the uses for motor vehicle fuel tax revenues. In regard to rail projects, the funds cannot be used for operating subsidies nor for rolling stock. 

The Interregional Improvement Program expenditure priorities for 60 percent of the funds are determined by Caltrans for improvements to the Interregional Road network in the state's rural areas (counties with populations of less than 50,000 persons) and for intercity passenger rail projects. The revenues committed to this program are not constrained by allocation formulas. The interregional highway projects would have to be consistent with the regional plans in rural counties. Caltrans also determines the expenditure priorities for the remaining 40 percent of the funds. According to SB 45, these funds "shall be used for transportation improvement projects that are needed to facilitate interregional movement of people and goods. The projects may include state highway, intercity passenger rail, mass transit guideway, or grade separation projects." 32 The discretionary funds support economic development objectives and unusual projects that might not be funded from the other revenue categories. These funds are subject to the North-South allocation formula but not the county share allocations. Caltrans and a regional agency may propose to combine RIP funds with the discretionary funds to finance a particularly expensive project that meets the project criteria that Caltrans must follow. (See Exhibit 3.1.)

Prior to SB 45, the centerpiece of the programming process was the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), a seven-year transportation capital outlay program. The STIP was essentially a state transportation investment program adopted every two years by the CTC. The regional agencies, including SANDAG and SCAG, throughout the state would propose projects from their Regional Transportation Improvement programs to the CTC. Similarly, Caltrans would propose projects to the CTC from the proposed STIP. The CTC would select the projects to be included in the STIP.

SB 45 significantly modifies this process. Under SB 45, the regional transportation planning agencies (RTPAs), which in the urban areas are synonymous with the federally designated metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) are entirely responsible for programming projects funded by RIP funds in their areas of jurisdiction. The expenditure programs developed by the RTPAs are no longer recommendations to the CTC for inclusion in the STIP. The program adopted by RTPAs must be included in the STIP by the CTC. If there is a project in a regional program with which the CTC is dissatisfied, the commission must reject the entire regional program. As a practical matter, this is unlikely to occur.

Until the enactment of SB 45, the STIP included the construction and right-of- way costs of projects. Now the STIP will include the cost of environmental studies; the securing of permits; preparation of plans, specifications, and estimates; the acquisition of rights of way; and construction management and engineering, including surveys and inspections. Although this increases overall project fiscal accountability from inception to construction, it also means that regional agencies will be required to be concerned with the overall cost of project development, not only construction costs. Except for Self-Help Counties * , project development and construction engineering costs have not been a concern of regional agencies.

For San Diego County, SANDAG, the metropolitan planning organization and regional transportation planning agency for the San Diego metropolitan area, has been programming both local and State funds for border-crossing highway improvements for several years. The primary transportation issue at the U.S.- Mexico border is to build highway infrastructure to accommodate traffic from Mexico. Approximately 1,600 trucks per day cross the border in San Diego County. 33 According to SANDAG, 13 percent of the truck traffic entering the county from Mexico is destined for loading docks in the county. The remaining 87 percent of the trucks are destined for markets outside the county. SANDAG
further reports that 93 percent of the tonnage crossing the border is bound for communities outside the county. Clearly, the border issue from a local perspective is to find ways of alleviating traffic being generated by NAFTA trade. The direct economic benefit to San Diego is related mostly to the trade, and subsequent traffic, generated by the maquiladora industry located in the county.

Prior to the adoption of SB 45, SANDAG's region was scheduled to have a programming target for the seven-year 1998 STIP of $127 million. In addition, SANDAG could have proposed projects to be funded from a CTC discretionary fund for Southern California of $75 million. With the passage of SB 45, SANDAG will have available for the six-year period through 2004 approximately $243.2 million. However, unlike the amount made available prior to SB 45, SANDAG will have to pay for project development and construction management costs from the funds made available during the six-year 1998 STIP.

An important role of an MPO or an RTPA is to advocate for funding for its region. Within California, RIP funding is provided through the allocation formulas discussed previously. This leaves little room for advocacy, except as the result of a general increase in state revenue. However, the discretionary program managed by Caltrans or by the Business, Transportation & Housing Agency, of which Caltrans is a part, provides a venue for advocating additional funding.

* Self-Help Counties are a group of eighteen counties in California each of which has a local sales tax for transportation funding. The taxes range from 1/2 cent to one cent. Typically, the taxes expire after fifteen or twenty years. San Diego County is a Self-Help County. 

Advocacy at the federal level carries with it a modest degree of risk. In past federal transportation reauthorization acts, localities frequently have included federal authorization for funds to construct specific projects. This is referred to as demonstration project funding. Usually this funding is included in the entire federal fund apportionment for the state in which the project is located. As a consequence, demonstration funding for a project results in less money for the conventional federal categorical programs. SB 45, as previously noted, in effect penalizes a region for receiving demonstration funding by deducting the revenue from its county share. SANDAG proposed inclusion of language in the reauthorization legislation of ISTEA to the effect that funding for border projects is not included in CaliforniaÕs apportionment of federal Highway Trust Funds. Although a similar exclusion was stipulated for the High Priority Corridors of the National Highway System (Section 1105) of ISTEA as the California Special Rule (Section 1105(g)(8), this exclusion was not included in TEA-21.

Should federal funding be provided from a source other than the Federal Highway Trust Fund, there is no risk of losing revenue. For example, should funds be made available to the San Diego region from the federal government through the U.S. General Services Administration for border transportation improvements, no penalty under current state law could be imposed that would result in the loss of RIP funding.

SANDAG, SCAG, and IVAG
San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) have been established by state legislation in compliance with federal requirements. Imperial County is within the SCAG region, and the Imperial Valley Council of Governments (IVAG) has been designated a subregion by SCAG. This allows IVAG to exercise considerable latitude to develop its own expenditure plan. Imperial County is forecasted to receive $33.4 million for the six-year 1998 STIP.

Such MPO organizations are composed of a variety of county, city, transit authority, state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), and other representatives. They develop annual and multiyear Transportation Improvement Programs (TIPs), including all projects using federal highway and transit funds. They are also involved in transportation planning and financing and conduct a variety of transportation studies, usually in cooperation with others.

The previously cited Barton-Aschman report describes these organizations in considerable detail in the Task 4 (U.S.) report. 

The Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee (BTTAC)
The Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee (BTTAC), which was established in May 1996, is composed of the following organizations: Caltrans, SANDAG, SCAG, IVAG, the City of San Diego, the City of Calexico, Secretario de Asentamientos, Humanos y Obras Pœblicas del Estado de Baja California (SAHOPE), and the Mexican municipalities of Mexicali, Tecate, Tijuana, Playa de Rosarito, and Ensenada. This organization has identified a work program that includes a full spectrum of activities to address border zone transportation issues. However, it has no direct funding or authority and its actions are not legally binding, so in actuality it basically is a means of exchanging information, providing technical advice, identifying issues and needs, and, hopefully,
coordinating actions. This organization, as presently constituted, is not adequate in our opinion to meet the development needs of the border area.

OTHER INVOLVED AGENCIES
Several other agencies are involved in border transportation. For example, recommended approval of U.S.-Mexico bridges and border crossings is vested in the U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group, which was formed in 1983. It is composed of representatives of the U.S. and Mexican governments and co-chaired by senior officials of the U.S. Department of State and the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Relations. The group meets semiannually to discuss proposed and existing bridges and border crossing matters. Representatives of the federal agencies of both nations comprise the voting membership with state representatives participating as observers.

An Interagency Working Group on Bridges and Border Crossings (IWG) has been formed in the United States to act as the U.S. staff to the binational group and to coordinate the U.S. federal agencies responsible for bridge and border crossings and the international boundary.

The permit process for new and revised border crossings (also called ports of entry) involves these other agencies although the process of permit granting is different on each side of the border. On the U.S. side, a Presidential Permit is required as a prime step. The application process for such a permit requires thirteen items be included:

· Applicant identification; · A detailed description of proposed facility and approaches;
· An explanation of how the nation's interest will be served by the construction of the proposed facility;
· A schedule for permit acquisition, other approvals, funding, and construction; 
· Costs and financing plan, including approach roads; · A plan to secure all approvals;
· Verification that Mexican authorities are aware of the proposal and will consider it;
· The identification of any impacts on properties on the "National Register of Historic Places";
· Minority and low-income populations likely to be affected;
· Commitments needed to ensure adequate support;
· Compatibility with Mexican plans and priorities;
· Viable plan for inspection facilities, inspection agency staffing, and bridge
operation; and
· Required National Environmental Protection Agency documentation.

These items are considered by the IWG prior to a recommendation for permit approval. The Presidential Permit is the first U.S. federal permit obtained. The process involves review of the application by several federal and state agencies to assess the viability and impact of the proposed bridge. Once this permit is issued, the sponsor may proceed to obtain permits from the International Boundary and Water Commission and the U.S. Coast Guard. Mexico's Secretariat of Foreign Relations has an analogous process. 34 

ISSUE IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION

INTRODUCTION
One of the primary objectives of this study was to identify policy-related issues arising from NAFTA that affect the transportation systems along the California-Baja California border. From the background information and the annotated bibliography, a list of potential issues was developed and are presented in this chapter.

After review, discussions, and comments by representatives of Caltrans, the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG), the Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB), the Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG), the City of San Diego, and San Diego Dialogue, the issues were arrayed in a matrix. The matrix identifies the organizations with primary responsibility for addressing each issue and an indication of their level of involvement. Each issue was then assigned to one of four categories.

Category One:
Issues not appropriate for further consideration in this study.

Category Two:
Issues recommended for action at a later date.

Category Three:
Issues addressed by others.

Category Four:
Issues recommended for short-term action (three to five years).

Those issues which were assigned to Category 4 were then analyzed in more depth, and recommendations were developed for each. This analysis is presented in Chapter 5.

DISCUSSION OF GENERAL SUBJECTS
ISTEA Reauthorization/TEA-21
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 was scheduled to expire at the end of the federal fiscal year 1997 but was extended to  provide funding until replacement legislation could be enacted. This occurred with the passage of new legislation known as the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), which was signed on June 9, 1998. This Act funds a six-year program that is the largest public works effort in the nation's history.

Highlights of the overall TEA-21 program are as follows:

· Authorizes the federal highway, transit, safety, research, and motor carrier programs by the six-year transportation act ending in 2003;

· Provides $217 billion in total budget authority: $173 billion for highways, $41.4 billion for transit, $2.2 billion for highway safety, and $650 million for motor carrier safety;

· Provides guaranteed spending of $165 billion for highways and $35 billion for transit; 

· Guarantees each state will receive at least 90.5% of contributions to the Highway Trust Fund through formula programs for the highway program;

· Ensures that tax revenues deposited into the Highway Trust Fund are spent on transportation on an annual basis;

· Allows the existing $25 billion balance and future interest earnings on new deposits in the Highway Trust Fund to be used for General Fund purposes. Among the components of TEA-21, the following sections are of particular importance to the transportation infrastructure features of the U.S.-Mexico border:

SEC. 1106(d). INTERMODAL FREIGHT CONNECTORS STUDY
(1) Report 'Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall'
(A) review the condition of and improvements made, since the designation of the National Highway System, to connectors on the National Highway System that serve seaports, airports, and other intermodal freight transportation facilities; and (B) report to Congress on the results of such review.

(2) Review 'In preparing the report, the Secretary shall review the connectors and identify projects carried out on those connectors that were intended to provide and improve service to an intermodal facility referred to in paragraph (1) and to facilitate the efficient movement of freight, including movements of freight between modes.

(3) Identification of impediments' If the Secretary determines on the basis of the review that there are impediments to improving the connectors serving intermodal facilities referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall identify such impediments and make any appropriate
recommendations as part of the Secretary's report to Congress under this subsection. 35

SEC. 1118. NATIONAL CORRIDOR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.
(a) In General, The Secretary shall establish and implement a program to make allocations to states and metropolitan planning organizations for coordinated planning, design, and construction of corridors of national significance, economic growth, and international or interregional trade. A state or metropolitan planning organization may apply to the Secretary for allocations under this section.

(b) Eligibility of Corridors 'The Secretary may make allocations under this section with respect to'

(1) high priority corridors identified in section 1105(c) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991; and

(2) any other significant regional or multistate highway corridor not described in whole or in part in paragraph (1) selected by the Secretary after consideration of, 
(A) the extent to which the annual volume of commercial vehicle traffic
at the border stations or ports of entry of each state
(i) has increased since the date of enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182); and
(ii) is projected to increase in the future;
(B) the extent to which commercial vehicle traffic in each state
(i) has increased since the date of enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182); and (ii) is projected to increase in the future;
(C) the extent to which international truck-borne commodities move through each state:
(D) the reduction in commercial and other travel time through a major international gateway or affected port of entry expected as a result of the proposed project including the level of traffic delays at at-grade highway crossings of major rail lines in trade corridors;
(E) the extent of leveraging of Federal funds provided under this subsection, including
(i) use of innovative financing;
(ii) combination with funding provided under other sections of this Act and title 23, United States Code; and (iii) combination with other sources of federal, state, local, or private funding including state, local, and private matching funds;
(F) the value of the cargo carried by commercial vehicle traffic, to the extent that the value of the cargo and congestion impose economic costs on the Nation's economy; and
(G) encourage or facilitate major multistate or regional mobility and economic growth and development in areas underserved by existing highway infrastructure.

(c) Purposes--Allocations may be made under this section for 1 or more
of the following purposes:

(1) Feasibility studies.
(2) Comprehensive corridor planning and design activities.
(3) Location and routing studies.
(4) Multistate and intrastate coordination for corridors described in subsection (b)

(5) After review by the Secretary of a development and management plan for the corridor or a usable component there of under subsection
(b)--
(A) environmental review; and
(B) construction.

(d) Corridor Development and Management Plan--A state or metropolitan planning organization receiving an allocation under this section shall develop, and submit to the Secretary for review, a development and management plan for the corridor or a usable component thereof with respect to which the allocation is being made. Such plan
shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:

(1) A complete and comprehensive analysis of corridor costs and benefits.
(2) A coordinated corridor development plan and schedule, including a timetable for completion of all planning and development activities, environmental reviews and permits, and construction of all segments.

(3) A finance plan, including any innovative financing methods and, if the corridor is a multistate corridor, a state-by-state breakdown of corridor finances.

(4) The results of any environmental reviews and mitigation plans. 
(5) The identification of any impediments to the development and construction of the corridor, including any environmental, social, political and economic objections.

In the case of a multistate corridor, the Secretary shall encourage all states having jurisdiction over any portion of such corridor to participate in the development of such plan.

(e) Applicability of Title 23ÑFunds made available by section 1101 of this Act to carry out this section and section 1119 shall be available for obligation in the same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of title 23, United States Code.

(f) Coordination of Planning--Planning with respect to a corridor under this section shall be coordinated with transportation planning being carried out by the states and metropolitan planning organizations along the corridor and, to the extent appropriate, with transportation planning being carried out by federal land management agencies, by tribal governments, or by government agencies in Mexico or Canada.

(g) State Defined--In this section, the term "state" has the meaning such term has under section 101 of title 23, United States Code. 36

SEC. 1119. COORDINATE BORDER INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM.

(a) General Authority--The Secretary shall establish and implement a coordinated border infrastructure program under which the Secretary may make allocations to border states and metropolitan planning organizations for areas within the boundaries of 1 or more border states for projects to improve the safe movement of people and goods at or across the border between the United States and Canada and the border between the United States and Mexico.

(b) Eligible Uses--Allocations to states and metropolitan planning organizations under this section may only be used in a border region for--

(1) improvements to existing transportation and supporting infrastructure that facilitate cross-border vehicle and cargo movements; 
(2) construction of highways and related safety and safety enforcement facilities that will facilitate vehicle and cargo movements related to international trade; 
(3) operational improvements, including improvements relating to electronic data interchange and use of telecommunications, to expedite cross border vehicle and cargo movement;
(4) modifications to regulatory procedures to expedite cross border vehicle and cargo movements;
(5) international coordination of planning, programming, and border operation with Canada and Mexico relating to expediting cross border vehicle and cargo movements; and
(6) activities of federal inspection agencies.
(c) Selection CriteriaÑThe Secretary shall make allocations under this section on the basis of--

(1) expected reduction in commercial and other motor vehicle travel time through an international border crossing as a result of the project;
(2) improvements in vehicle and highway safety and cargo security related to motor vehicles crossing a border with Canada or Mexico;
(3) strategies to increase the use of existing, underutilized border crossing facilities and approaches;
(4) leveraging of federal funds provided under this section, including use of innovative financing, combination of such funds with funding provided under other sections of this Act, and combination with other sources of federal, state, local, or private funding;
(5) degree of multinational involvement in the project and demonstrated coordination with other federal agencies responsible for the inspection of vehicles, cargo, and persons crossing international borders and their counterpart agencies in Canada and Mexico;
(6) improvements in vehicle and highway safety and cargo security in and through the gateway or affected port of entry concerned;
(7) the degree of demonstrated coordination with federal inspection agencies;
(8) the extent to which the innovative and problem solving techniques of the proposed project would be applicable to other border stations or ports
of entry; 
(9) demonstrated local commitment to implement and sustain continuing comprehensive border or affected port of entry planning processes and improvement programs; and
(10) such other factors as the Secretary determines are appropriate to promote border transportation efficiency and safety.

(d) Construction of Transportation Infrastructure for Law Enforcement Purposes--At the request of the Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary may transfer, during the period of fiscal years 1998 through 2001, not more than $10,000,000 of the amounts made available by section 1101 to carry out this section
and section 1118 to the Administrator of General Services for the construction of transportation infrastructure necessary for law enforcement in border states.

(e) Definitions--In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) Border region--The term "border region" means the portion of aborder state in the vicinity of an international border with Canada or Mexico.

(2) Border state--The term "border state" means any state that has a boundary in common with Canada or Mexico. 37

SEC. 1211(I). ISTEA HIGH PRIORITY CORRIDORS AMENDMENTS.

(30) Interstate Route 5 in the states of California, Oregon, and Washington, including California State Route 905 between Interstate Route 5 and the Otay Mesa Port of Entry.

(34) The Alameda Corridor East and Southwest Passage, California. The Alameda Corridor East is generally described as 52.8 miles from east Los Angeles (terminus of Alameda Corridor) through the San Gabriel Valley terminating at Colton Junction in San Bernardino. The Southwest Passage shall follow I-10 from San Bernardino to the Arizona state line and I-8 from San Diego to the Arizona state line. 38

SEC. 1213. STUDIES AND REPORTS.
(d) Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure--
(1) Assessment--The Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive assessment of the state of the transportation infrastructure on the southwest border between the United States and Mexico (in this subsection referred to as the "border").

(2) Consultation--In carrying out the assessment, the Secretary shall consult with--
(A) the Secretary of State;
(B) the Attorney General;
(C) the Secretary of the Treasury;
(D) the Commandant of the Coast Guard;
(E) the Administrator of General Services:
(F) the American Commissioner on the International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico;
(G) state agencies responsible for transportation and law enforcement in border states; and
(H) municipal governments and transportation authorities in sister cities in the border area.

(3) Requirements--In carrying out the assessment, the Secretary shall--
(A) assess the flow of commercial and private traffic through designated ports of entry on the border;
(B) assess the adequacy of transportation infrastructure in the border areas, including highways, bridges, railway lines, and border inspection facilities;
(C) assess the adequacy of law enforcement and narcotics abatement activities in the border area, as the activities relate to commercial and private traffic and infra-structure;
(D) assess future demands on transportation infrastructure in the border area; and
(E) make recommendations to facilitate legitimate cross-border traffic in the border area, while maintaining the integrity of the border.

(4) Report--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the assessment conducted under this subsection, including any related legislative and administrative recommendations. 39

These provisions of TEA-21 as they pertain to the border infrastructure raise several questions.

Issue 1: Regarding TEA-21, Section 1106(d): Should Caltrans undertake a similar study, especially in relation to the BZ, so as to be in a strong position to react to federal requests for input in a timely manner? 

Issue 2. Regarding TEA-21, Sections 1118, 1119, and 1211(I): Should Caltrans review the state route designations to maximize federal government participation in providing highway service to existing and proposed border crossings?

Issue 3. Regarding TEA-21, Section 1213: Should Caltrans press for major involvement in development of the Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure Study through the Binational Joint Working Committee (JWC) or by other means?

U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group and the
Joint Working Committee
This Border Crossings Group provides only formal state input in scheduled presentations because the state representatives participate only as observers at the biannual meetings.

The state representatives to this binational group are usually the same people who are on the Joint Working Committee (JWC). The future of the JWC is uncertain; although, present indications are that it will reconstitute its self as an organization to carry out the program proposed in the BBTPP Study. This may or may not be in the best interests of the state of California and Caltrans, largely because the JWC is a poor vehicle for MPO input. Under the recent changes in the California transportation planning process, the MPOs play a major role.

The Hamilton, Rabinovitz and Alschuler (HR&A) border transportation case study presents three approaches to provide better state and local input into this process:

a. Work indirectly through the Binational Transportation Planning Joint Working Committee, 40
b. Mobilize local business and political support, and
c. Seek direct participation by the affected region and/or state interagency
committee in deliberations. 41

These recommendations of the HR&A report have not been pursued by either SANDAG or Caltrans. This raises another question.

Issue 4. Should Caltrans develop a method to improve the presentation of proposals and plans to the Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group?

Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North
American Trade 42
In 1994, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) submitted a report to Congress, pursuant to Sections 1089 and 6015 of ISTEA, entitled Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade, which called for a ". . . study of the advisability and feasibility of establishing an international border highway infrastructure discretionary program." (Section 1089) and the identification of "...existing and emerging trade corridors and transportation subsystems that facilitate trade between the United States, Canadaand Mexico." with transportation priorities and recommendations for border crossings (Section 6015). 43 The DOT report stated that the department would."
. . support the creation of a task force or multi-task forces composed of federal,
state and local government agencies, and the private sector to address congestion
at border crossings..." 44 The intent being "...to identify critical border initiatives and to aggressively promote the use of new technologies and techniques and other non-capital intensive methods of facilitating the movement of people, cargo, and vehicles through major border crossings." 45 Many improvements to facilitate border port of entry operations have been and are being implemented, but on a piecemeal basis.

Issue 5. Should Caltrans request the formation of a task force to address border- crossing congestion and to consider how to improve the state's border crossings
with Baja California?

State Highway Routes to International Ports of Entry
At the present time, the legislative intent for the State Highway System to serve the international ports of entry is not clear.

Except for Otay Mesa, land ports on the California-Baja California border are served by existing state highways. At Otay Mesa, the auto and bus POE is served by State Route 905 but this short section of highway does not connect to the rest of the State Highway System (See Exhibits 4.1a, 4.1b, and 4.1c ) and through traffic must use Otay Mesa Road, a City of San Diego street.

The commercial POE of Otay Mesa is not directly connected to State Route 905 but discharges onto the City of San Diego street system. The California Vehicle Enforcement Facility (CVEF) is also located on a city street. Although Caltrans is currently working with the City of San Diego and the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) to implement a "bypass" route between the Federal POE and the CVEF, trucks leaving the CVEF will still have to travel city streets to reach the State Highway System. Similarly, trucks going into Mexico must also use city of San Diego streets.

Some international airports in the state, such as San Francisco, are well-served by the State Highway System, but others, such as San Diego's Lindbergh Field,  are not well-served. A list of international airports in California is given in Exhibit 2.5.

Seaports of entry are similar to the airports in the diversity of adequate service by the State Highway System.

In light of the requirements of TEA-21, Sections 1119, Coordinated Border Infrastructure Program, 1213(d), Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure, and 1106(d), Intermodal Freight Connectors Study, which all can include the subject of adequate access to international POEs, it is apparent that the State Highway System should serve these facilities adequately. At present, this is not clear in state legislation.

Issue 6. Should there be state legislation to establish the intent of the State Highway System vis-à-vis international ports of entry?

The California Transportation Plan and the State's Dedication to Border Zone Improvements to Increase Commerce and Trade
As stated in the plan:
The 1993 California Transportation Plan (CTP) provides direction for planning, developing, operating and maintaining California's transportation system. Both the Federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, and the state's SB 1435 (Chapter 1177, Statutes of 1992) require the preparation of a state long-range transportation plan. SB 1435 required the initial plan to be submitted to the Governor December 1, 1993. The vision for this plan, which builds upon the "Legislature's  Transportation Blueprint," was framed in Governor Pete Wilson's Executive Order W-36- 92, signed September 29, 1992. The Executive Order also directed Caltrans to prepare this plan in cooperation with other state and regional agencies. 46

The CTP makes three recommendations for implementation requiring the Governor's authorization:

1. Convening a commission on California's transportation future,
2. Developing a goods movement strategy for California, and
3. Determining the state's transportation role beyond the highway element. 47

These recommendations are being addressed as part of an in-house study by District 11 of Caltrans to develop a vision for the future as a guide to updating of the District's System Management Plan (SMP). The SMP is a key building block for the development of the California Transportation Plan. 

Issue 7. Is the District 11 Visionary Plan an adequate vehicle for formalizing of the state's role in providing a BZ program to be included in the next California Transportation Plan?

Border Zone (BZ) Definition
HR&A's Discussion Paper #4: Defining a Binational Transportation Planning Zone for the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Region points out that "Neither Caltrans nor SANDAG has, to date, officially adopted a Ôborder zone" in their respective transportation planning models or official transportation plans. 48

A 200 km wide border zone centered on the California-Baja California border will be used in this study. This zone conforms to that used not only by the Binational Transportation Planning Joint Working Committee but also by the United States-Mexico Border XXI Program, which is jointly administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Mexico's Secretaria de Mexico Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP). The designated zone also has the advantage in California of, for all practical purposes, conforming to existing county lines so that all of San Diego and Imperial Counties are within the zone. (See Exhibit 4.2.)

Further, as the HR&A report states, "On the U.S. side of the border, this boundary would be coincident with the boundaries of Caltrans District 11, and each county's Transportation Commission. On the Mexican side of the border, it would include all of the urbanized areas adjacent to the border, including the proposed Tijuana Loop Road. It would also reach to the Port of Ensenada, and include the Mexican portion of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern (SD&AE) railroad, and any future rail line from the Ensenada Port to Tijuana." 49

At the U.S. DOT Corridors & Borders ONE-DOT Conference held in San Diego, California, August 25, 1998, IISTPS presented testimony on this topic. IISTPS urged the U.S. DOT to adopt the La Paz Agreement definition for the BZ in the implementation of TEA-21. This testimony is Appendix F.

Issue 8. Should the California border zone be defined by state legislation?
DISCUSSION OF PLANNING SUBJECTS
Integrated Border Zone Transportation Planning
A number of efforts have been undertaken to address the issue of the need for a more direct role by federal, state, and local agencies in integrated border zone transportation planning. However, an impediment to coordinating regional transportation planning at the border is that none of the U.S. or Mexican federal agencies that make decisions about border crossings are directly involved in the planning and implementation of attendant transportation facilities. Local transportation planning efforts in both countries have been frustrated by the lack of coordination on local access to new or improved POEs. Local planning for added POEs has often been based solely on political desires.

The U.S. federal agencies involved in infrastructure development are primarily concerned with their statutory responsibilities and no single U.S. agency has responsibility for overall coordination of federal policies at the border POEs. Proposals for U.S. bridge and land crossing facilities at the border are currently considered by an interagency committee of ten federal agencies, which then makes recommendations to the U.S. State Department. Twice each year these agencies meet with their Mexican counterparts as U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group to exchange information and coordinate proposals.
This body has been largely unresponsive to local and even state input until recently when, as the result of state and local pressures, it has been more receptive to such input.

Issue 9. Should state legislation be proposed to specify the stateÕs role in BZ transportation planning?

Integrated binational transportation planning for the U.S.-Mexico border is the focus of the recently completed major study, Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study (BBTPP Study). Although a good deal of information was collected and communications among the U.S. and Mexican transportation planners has been greatly improved, largely because of the study, no breakthrough method to standardize binational transportation planning was found. This being the case, there is a need for state and local California agencies to work with their Mexican counterparts to strengthen the Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee in order to make regional transportation planning along their common border as seamless as possible. The BBTPP Study is included in the Annotated Bibliography.

Issue 10. How can the California-Baja California border zone transportation
planning be improved?

Good Neighbor Environmental Board/U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program
Several recent studies have identified the need for improved institutional arrangements to address the problems of binational coordination. One is the April 1997 Annual Report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board. 50 This board was created under 7 U.S. Code, Section 5404 "... to advise the U.S. President and Congress concerning environmental and infrastructure issues and needs within the states contiguous to Mexico."51 A Presidential Executive Order delegates implementation authority for this board to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

This EPA-led board has defined their role as follows:
· advising the U.S. Government and the Congress regarding environmental and infrastructure issues and needs;
· promoting sustainable development for the border region by recommending balanced approaches to environmental, infrastructure, public health, and economic development issues;
· promoting improved coordination of federal programs and resources in the border region;
· advocating for and representing U.S. residents of the border region; and
· encouraging the development, use and dissemination of environmental technologies and financing mechanisms appropriate to the unique circumstances of the region. 52

Given this role and the identified border area problems, the board encourages both governments to recognize that the infrastructure problems, including transportation, require a binational effort. It should be noted that transportation, although recognized as a major factor in BZ developments, is not a prime interest of the EPA board or its Mexican counterpart.

In 1996 the EPA established the U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program with a mission to achieve a clean environment, protect public health and natural resources, and encourage sustainable development along the U.S.-Mexico border. In October 1996 the framework document for this program was transmitted to the President of the United States. The program represents a significant step in strengthening of cooperation among numerous environmental, health, and natural resource agencies in the U.S. and Mexico in addressing border zone problems. The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) has applauded this program, but has also recommended that the Border XXI effort needs to be expanded in several areas, including transportation.

To carry out the Border XXI and similar border region programs, the GNEB recognizes that, "An interagency process is needed that provides more authority to agencies to coordinate and integrate their border program and project activities, to budget jointly for cooperative projects, to leverage appropriations, to develop interagency funding agreements, to provide multi-agency grants, and to permit utilization of federal funds in both countries to make projects truly binational
and sustainable." 53 

Furthermore, the Board's annual report for 1997 urges "Congress to consider creating legislation which empowers federal agencies to implement more creative funding approaches to resolving U.S.-Mexico border issues." 54  The report does not venture to recommend that Congress consider legislation to allow creation of binational regional authorities.

The HR&A study, on the other hand, does recognize the need for additional institutional mechanisms to facilitate binational highway planning.

Issue 11. Should Caltrans become more involved in the EPA Border XXI program?

NAFTA Transportation Impacts on Border Zone Indian Nations
There are a reported twenty-five Native American Nations located in the U.S. within the 100 km border zone. (See Exhibit 4.3.) Nineteen of these are in California and two of them are on the border with Baja California. The Quechan Nation in Imperial County is on the border adjacent to the Colorado River and is bisected by State Route 186. The Campo Nation, which is near the border in eastern San Diego County has both Interstate 8 and State Route 94 running through its territory. The CTP calls for Caltrans, in cooperation with others, to incorporate Native American issues related to transportation into the overall
transportation process. (Exhibit 4.3 lists the twenty-five Nations within the 100 km border zone of the U.S.) In regards to statewide transportation responsibilities, the relationship between the border-zone Indian Nations and state governments is not clear.

Issue 12. Should the California Department of Transportation obtain a legal
opinion of its role in dealing with Indian Nations while fulfilling its transportation
responsibilities?

Southwest Passage Strategic Action Plan
The Southwest Passage as proposed by the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) is a multimodal goods movement corridor along the U.S.-
Mexico border from the California coast to the Texas Gulf. It also includes portions of connections to U.S.-Mexico ports of entry and the U.S. interior. A study of this corridor was undertaken by SCAG in 1996 and completed in 1997. 55

The introduction to the SCAG corridor study states, "In April 1997, the SCAGRegional Council authorized a study to develop a comprehensive trade and transportation corridor along the US-Mexico border as the Southwest Passage strategy. The purpose of the Southwest Passage is to foster greater economic growth by developing a continental freight transport network that connects the Southwestern economy to the burgeoning economies of Asia and the Americas." 56

The SCAG study presents the following five strategic goals: 
· Obtain acceptance or adoption of the Definition of the Southwest Passage,
· Incorporate the Southwest Passage into the RTPs and RTIPs of the affected MPOs,
· Incorporate the Southwest Passage into the STPs and STIPs of the affected states,
· Obtain limited congressional funding for the Southwest Passage in fiscal 1998, and
· Establish the Southwest Passage institutional and organizational machinery in order to move the project forward and to implement the systems planning effort. 57

TEA-21, Section 1211(I)(34) adds the California portion of the Southwest Passage to the High Priorities Corridors program, so some of the proposed strategic goals have been at least partially met. However, to meet the program intent the corridor needs to be extended to the other U.S.-Mexico border states.

Issue 13. Should the California Department of Transportation take an active role in the development of the SCAG proposed Southwest Passage, and work with the other U.S.-Mexico border states to extend the Southwest Passage to cover the total border area from the California coast to the Texas gulf?

The Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee
The Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee (BTTAC) is only an advisory committee and lacks authority to perform meaningful activities and programs.

Issue 14. Should Caltrans suggest legislation to strengthen the BTTAC organization?

Planning for Sustainable Transportation
The concept of a sustainable system is based on producing a system that does not deplete nonrenewable resources. The sustainability of existing transportation systems is attracting more interest at both the international and national levels as it becomes obvious that an infinite growth of transportation facilities cannot occur within a finite system. NAFTA, with its reliance on increased transportation, has impacts on the environment and its sustainability. The environmental aspects of NAFTA on the U.S. are largely the responsibility of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA-sponsored and produced U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program is an innovative binational effort by the two nations to work together toward sustainable development by protecting human health and the environment. Since transportation modes have differing impacts on the environment, the work of the EPA can have significant effect on existing and planned transportation systems.

Issues of air quality, energy use per ton-km of goods movement, noise, and hazardous materials hauling and disposal are the responsibility of the EPA. As an example of NAFTA effects on sustainability, there is some speculation that, with the liberalization of trucking along the border, the movement of goods between the Mexican mainland and the two peninsula states of Baja California and Baja California Sur may be rerouted through the U.S. because of the better road conditions. A reverse of this may occur in rail freight, where the consolidation of rail services in the U.S. and the privatizing of services in Mexico may significantly change the present goods movement via rail patterns.

The term sustainable transportation, as addressed in the Border XXI Program, refers to both the environment and the transportation systems. Surface transportation is dependent on diesel and gasoline engines and there may be international fuel availability problems by mid-21st century, although the short-term supply is presently ample.

There are indications that Mexico, with its centralized policy making, may be in a better position than the U.S. to develop and implement the concepts of sustainability, both environmentally and from a broad transportation context,

Issue 15. Should Caltrans introduce the concept of a sustainable transportation system, especially along the BZ, in its State Transportation Plan?

Potential Border Zone Transportation Toll Projects
State legislation authorizing limited privatization of projects under specified conditions on the State Highway System is in place. Private development of the southern end of State Route 125 is authorized by 1989 legislation as a demonstration program. The California Transportation Commission, responding to a Governor's directive, recommended in 1994 that the state's toll road program be amended to include a program targeted to the border but the legislation to accomplish the CTC recommendation was not successful in 1995. Toll roads in Imperial County were authorized by legislation in 1996 and Caltrans investigated
the feasibility of extending State Route 7 from State Route 98 to Interstate 8 and possibly establishing the entire route as a public toll road. Subsequent funding augmentations resulting from TEA-21 and a healthy California economy eliminated the need for this route to be constructed as a tolled facility. However, with the increased border-area traffic growth, the future need for toll road financing exists. Proposed State Route 11 is a possible candidate. There are three existing tolled highways in Orange County and one tolled single-occupant use of an HOV facility in San Diego County. Other toll facilities are under
development, including a major project for State Route 125 near the U.S. Mexico border in San Diego County.

Issue 16. Should Caltrans pursue broader legislation to promote additional toll
roads?

Modal Subjects and Issues
Highways in General
Issue 17. In the light of SB 45, How does Caltrans fulfill its legislative mandate that "the routes of the state highway system serve the state's heavily traveled rural and urban corridors, that they connect the communities and regions of the state, and that they serve the state's economy by connecting centers of commerce, industry, agriculture, mineral wealth, and recreation" 58 ?

Issue 18. Should highway projects within the BZ that are directly needed to enhance international trade be funded in a manner that will not subtract from funds allotted to the RIP?

Route 5
The question of how best to proceed in providing for future transportation needs in the San Ysidro POE area is in limbo.

Caltrans has not taken a formal position on the alternatives presented in the P&D study and the SOHA study. Nor have the desires of the City of Tijuana in this regard been formalized. Tijuana is selecting a consultant to study transportation needs in the downtown portion of the municipio * . The resulting study may delay the city from taking any position on proposed binational improvements in the San Ysidro area. It has been suggested that a binational study team be established to consider the transportation remedies needed at this
POE, but as yet such action is not underway. However, a SANDAG study to estimate traffic needs in the San Ysidro border area has begun.

Issue 19. What should be the StateÕs role in upgrading the San Ysidro area to accommodate both binational traffic growth and changes in inspection procedures?

Route 11
This is an unconstructed state highway route to provide access to a future POE a few miles east of the existing Otay Mesa POE. (See Exhibit 4.1c.)

* A Mexican municipio is roughly equivalent to a U.S. county. The border zone municipios in Baja California are Tijuana, Tecate, Mexicali, Rosarito, and Ensenada.  Recent legislation providing that stipulated routes in Imperial County can be developed as toll facilities does not include this route. However, the Wilbur Smith study, United States-Mexico International Border Transportation Case Study. Element 2: Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for the Provision of a Toll Road Extension to the International Border, found that such a toll facility would generate a surplus of revenue over expenses by 2008. 59

Issue 20. Should legislation be suggested by Caltrans to allow Route 11 to be developed as either a public or private toll road?

Issue 21. Is a private sector funded POE on Route 11 feasible?

Issue 22. Should Caltrans proceed with the environmental studies as soon as the present corridor preservation study for Route 11 is complete?

Issue 23. What is the status of development of highways within Baja California connecting to Route 11?

Issue 24. Is it reasonable to make Route 11 part of Route 125 and to include it in the existing privatization project as a toll road?

Routes 94 and 188
These routes serve the POE at Tecate. Caltrans is studying these routes to decide if they can adequately serve Tecate; if they are safe for use by large trucks, and if a possible POE near Jacumba could provide alternative routing between eastern San Diego County and the Tecate Municipio. At present, the hours of service at the U.S. Tecate POE may be influencing the utility of this facility.

Issue 25. Should the State request that federal agencies review the hours of service at the Tecate POE to discourage its use by large trucks and encourage them to use the existing POE at Otay Mesa or a proposed new POE near Jacumba?

Route 125
A major portion of the southern section of this route is proposed as a franchised private toll road. Although the EIS/EIR is in the final stage, funding for private sector development is not assured.

Issue 26. If private development of this section of State Route 125 does not occur, should that portion of the route be considered for development as a public toll road?

Route 186
The possible relocation of the major traffic at the POE at Algodones to accommodate street construction in the Mexican town of Andrade in the Mexicali Municipio may result in changes to the existing POE on this route. Caltrans District 11 is considering this possibility, but there are questions concerning the authority of the state and federal governments to relocate the existing highway through the Quechan Indian Nation.

Issue 27. Can the state negotiate directly with the Quechan Indian Nation or must the federal government assume this role?

Issue 28. What environmental documentation is appropriate for a state highway project within an Indian Nation?

Route 905
Plans for the construction of this route between Route 805 and the terminus at the existing Otay Mesa POE are proceeding and significant funding is authorized in TEA-21 for the construction of this vitally needed facility.

Highway route continuity might be improved by revisions to the legislative descriptions of this route, Route 11, and Route 125 in the Otay Mesa area.

Issue 29. Should a reassessment of the designations for Routes 11 and 125 be undertaken in the Otay Mesa area?

Public Transportation
Although the Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB) has proposed upgrading public transportation services in the San Ysidro area, an overall look at the present and future transit services at this and other POEs on the California- Baja California border is warranted.

It is not evident that the GSA has a program to assure that all POEs are in compliance with the U.S. American Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. Since Mexico, to our knowledge, has no comparable requirements, compliance within the U.S. POEs may be of questionable value.

Issue 30. Should the State encourage SANDAG and SCAG to undertake studies of the public transportation service connections within California at the U.S.-
Mexico border (including van, taxi, airport limousine, and intercity bus service)?

Issue 31. Will proposed improvements by the MTDB for the light rail system at the San Ysidro Port of Entry preclude a possible light rail extension to a Virginia Avenue Port of Entry?

Issue 32. How can U.S. American Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements be implemented for binational pedestrian trips? (Mexico has no comparable program for elderly/handicapped users.) 

Rail Service
Issue 33. Should SANDAG be funded for a supplemental study of freight rail services to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry based on possible Mexican rail service from Ensenada to Mesa de Otay, including an alternative through the Otay River valley?

Issue 34. Is relocation of the Union Pacific rail lines through Calexico feasible?

Issue 35. Can Ferromex rail passenger services be extended into the United States (and provide cross-platform service with the proposed Los Angeles- Coachella Valley rail passenger service)?

Issue 36. Should the state of California take a strong position on reopening the SD&AE rail line, including possible rail service funding based on highway goods movement diversion from the State Highway System Routes 8, 94, and 188?

Issue 37. Is Union PacificÕs 13% interest in the Ferromex Pacific Northern system likely to increase rail freight through Calexico/Mexicali?

Airports
Issue 38. Should Caltrans have a position on air freight development to serve the international border?

Issue 39. Should the state pursue legislation to provide that all international airports be served by the State Highway System, including state highway service to Lindbergh Field in San Diego and the Calexico International Airport?

Issue 40. Since goods movement on the State Highway System affects congestion, environment, safety, and facility maintenance, should a study be undertaken on how to optimize the air cargo/trucking intermodal interface?

Ports of Entry
Andrade-Algodones POE
Issue 41. How should the federal GSA funds budgeted for the Andrade-Algodones POE be used?

Issue 42. Should the state request the federal government to extend the service hours at the Andrade-Algodones POE?

Issue 43. Should present restricted commercial use of the Andrade-Algodones POE continue?

Calexico-Mexicali POE
Issue 44. Should a study be undertaken on the possibility of relocating the existing rail service to Mexico to cross at the new Calexico POE? 

Issue 45. Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at the Calexico non-commercial POE be mitigated at reasonable cost?

Issue 46. Is immediate action needed to assure that the inactive Calexico commercial POE remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

San Diego-Tijuana POE
Issue 47. Is action needed to assure that the Virginia Avenue property in San Diego remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

Issue 48. Should Caltrans begin working with the GSA to plan for the accommodation of inspection facilities needed to implement federal requirements for southbound inspections at the San Diego-Tijuana POE?

Issue 49. Does the present presidential permit cover only a commercial POE at Virginia Avenue in San Diego?

Issue 50. Should Caltrans take a position on the proposed private development for an "International Gateway of the Americas" in San Diego since it may include transportation elements which could affect the operation of the adjacent
Interstate Route 5?

Issue 51. Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at San Ysidro Port of Entry be mitigated?

Issue 52. Should the state be responsible for international freight movements that must use local San Diego streets to obtain access to the port of entry facilities?

Issue 53. Should there be a Caltrans impact report on the effects of preferential border crossing for northbound automobile traffic at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry?

TABLE 1 STUDY MATRIX

Here are the 53 issues in a matrix format that identifies the desired result for each issue as well as each issue's assigned category and the involvement of selected agencies. 

Issue Desired Results Category
1 TEA-21, Sec. 1106(d) Study by Caltrans Input to Federal study   

 4

2 TEA-21, Sec. 1118, etc. Route designation Review May increase Federal dollars      

4

3 TEA-21, Sec. 1213, Southwest Border Study  Input to Federal study    4
4 Plan for improved proposals to BBBCG  Improved results  2
5 Form Federal Task Force to address congestion, etc.  May be redundant   2
6 State legislative intent re highway system to POEs 
a. Improved goods movement 
b. Clarify route limits  
4
7 District 11 Visionary Plan input to CTP adequacy  Determines future State border zone programs 3
8 Border zone (BZ) defined by State legislation    Needed for uniformity  4
9 State legislation re border zone planning  Clarify responsibility    2
10 Improve California border zone planning  Needed for uniformity and efficiency  4
11 Caltrans Border XXI participation  Improved coordination and efficiency   4
12 Caltrans & Indian Nations responsibility  In line with California Transportation Plan  4
13 Caltrans' role in Southwest Passage Needed for program success 4
14 Strengthen BTTAC Strengthen Binational Coordination 4
15 Sustainable Transportation Should be included in CTP update 2
16 Legislation for added toll roads Reduce government capital costs 4
17 Legislative intent for state highways to serve commerce Clarify state planning responsibility 2
18 Funding bnorder zone highway projects outside RIP Possible reduced costs to state 1
19 State role in  San Ysidro upgrade Improved POE operations and capacity 2
20 Route 11--possible toll road Reduce state capital costs 2
21 Route 11--Private POE feasibility Reduce capital costs and improve efficiency 2
22 Route 11--Proceed with EIS/EIR Needed to ensure timely congestion relief 4
23 Route 11--Status of connecting highway in Baja California Needed to schedule Route 11 implementation 2*
24 Route 11--include in present private toll road project Potential reduced government capital costs 4
25 Route 188--Tecate POE operating hours Improved Service 3
26 Route 125--possible public toll road Need to assure route implementation 2
27 Route 186--State role vis-a-vis Indian Nation Needed to clarify responsibility 3
28 Route 186--Indian Nation EIS/EIR Needed to clarify responsibilities 3
29 Otay Mesa route designation study Could reduce state capial costs 4
30 Transit service connections at POEs Adequate service to POEs 4
31 San Ysidro POE light rail transit service extension Adequate service 3PS
32 POE ADA requirements for binational trips Legal requirement in US and improved pedestrian service 4
33 Study of freight rail to Otay Mesa Improved goods movement services 2
34 Relocation of UP Railroad at Calexico Improved freight rail service and possible mode shift 2
35 Ferromex passenger service connection Improved passenger rail service 2
36 SD&AE reopening-state position Improved freight rail service 2
37 UP/Ferromex increased freight Increased freight service 2
38 Caltrans position on air freight service to international border Shift in goods movement routings 2
39 Highways to Lindbergh and Calexico International Airports Improved air freight service 4
40 Air cargo/trucking intermodal interface Improved air cargo service 3GM
41 Andrade POE upgrade funding Highway service to Andrade POE improved 3
42 Andrade POE hours of service Improved service to POE users 3
43Andrade POE commercial use Improved service to POE users 3
44 Calexico POE (new facility) rail service Improved rail freight service and possible mode shift 2
45 Calexico POE Improved air quality 4
46 Calexico POE Improved freight transportation facilities 4
47 San Diego/Tijuana POE (Virginia Avenue property) Improved freight transportation facilities 4
48 San Diego/Tijuana POE southbound inspection Provide for legal inspection requirements and improved traffic circulation 3CS
49 San Diego/Tijuana POE, Virginia Avenue Presidential permit Clarify future options 3CS
40 San Diego/Tijuana POE, International Gateway Project  Improve state needs consideration and strengthen project viability 3CS
51 San Diego/Tijuana POE-air quality  Improved air quality 4
52 POE connections to state highways Improved international freight trucking 3
53 Otay Mesa POE-impact report May be legal requirement 3CS

LEGEND: ADA=American Disabilities Act; BBBCG= Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Group; BTTAC= Bistate Transportation Technical Advisory Committee; CS=Current Studies; CTP= California Transportation Plan; EIS/EIR= Environmental Impact Statement & Report; GM= California Goods Movement;POE= port of entry; PS=Present Studies; RIP= Regional Improvement Program; SD=City of San Diego; TEA-21= Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century; Union Pacific Ralroad 

* Dependent on the results of Question 22.

AGENCIES INVOLVED

Issue  Caltrans District Caltrans HQ MPO CTC CA/GOV Fed OTher
1  X P X U R/U P
2 P X X U R/U
3 P X X U P
4 X P X U SA cities
5 X P X SA cities
6 X P U U R
7 P X X cities
8 X P X U R X
9 X P X X R/SA
10 P X P U U U cities
11 X P U X
12 X P X
13 X P P X SW
14 P X P U U U P/cities
15 X X X X P/SA X U
16 X P X X R
17 X X X X SA/U
18 X P X X R cities
19 X P X U SA/U P SD
20 X P X X SA/R SD
21 X P X U P/SA P SD
SDC
22 P X X U U SD
SDC
23 P X U U P/Mexico
24 X P X U
25 P/DS X U U X SDC
26 X P X X P/SA U cities
27 DS P U U P
28 DS P U U P
29 P/DS X X R U
30 X X P U P/MTDB
31 X X U P/MTDB
32 X X U X P//Mexico
33 X X P MTDB/MS
34 X X X P/F
35 X X X P/F
36 X X X U SA/U X P/MTDB
37 X X P/F
38 X X X U SA/U U P/airport carriers
39 P X X U U X airport carriers
40 X X X U U X airport carriers
41 P/DS X X U X Indian Nation
42 P//DS X X X
43 P/DS X X X carriers
44 X X X P/F
45 P X X X
46 P X X X
47 P X X P
48 P X X X SD/Mexico
49 P P X
50 P P X U SA/U SD
51 P X X X
52 X P X U SA/U cities
53 X X P U U

LEGEND: CA/Gov= Office of the Governor and Business, Transportation and Housing Agency;
CTC= California Transportation Commission; DS=Present District Study; F=UP/Ferromex; MPO= metropolitan planning organization; MTDB=Metropolitan Transit Development Board; P= prime
involvement; R= recommend legislation; SA= new state administration position unknown; SD=City if San Diego; SDC=San Diego County; SW=Other Southwest Border States;
U= uncertain; X= involvement in issue 

 

ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY FOUR ISSUES:
RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTION PLANS

This chapter provides an analysis of the issues identified as Category Four in the matrix, i.e. those issues for which short-term recommendations are appropriate. For each issue, recommendations are presented.

Issue 1
Regarding TEA-21, Section 1106(d): Should Caltrans undertake a similar study, especially in relation to the BZ, so as to be in a strong position to react to federal
requests for input in a timely manner?

Discussion
Too often federal studies are done in a semi-vacuum and the affected parties are, at best, only able to react to draft proposals. Section 1106(d) of TEA-21 calls for an Intermodal Freight Connectors Study to be performed by the Secretary of Transportation and reported to Congress by June 9, 2000. This study could reinforce and augment similar efforts by Caltrans Headquarters and districts, MPOs, transit districts, port districts, and the private sector. To assure maximum state input to the mandated federal study, it will be necessary to assemble the data with the cooperation of many others at the state and local levels. In our opinion, this input to the study from the State of California should be done by
Caltrans.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans undertake a statewide Intermodal Freight Connectors Study to obtain input for the pending federal TEA-21, Section 1106(d) study.

Suggested Action
Assign resources as needed. The state would qualify for federal funding.

Issue 2
Regarding TEA-21, Sections 1118, 1119, and 1211(I): Should Caltrans review the State route designations to maximize federal government participation in providing highway service to existing and proposed border crossings?

Discussion
TEA-21 adds State Route 905 and I-5 to the federal priority corridors program. At present, the state highways on Otay Mesa are not in a logical designation pattern. SR 125 would be a logical extension to the existing Otay Mesa POE as a north-south route and it would be more logical to extend SR 905 to the proposed POE east of the existing facility, replacing SR 11. Since the Secretary of Transportation has legislative authority under TEA-21, Section 1118 to adjust or augment the National Corridor Planning and Development Program, a rearrangement of route designations might be to the advantage of the State by making the present SR 11 (an unconstructed route) a Section 1105(c) high-priority corridor.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans District 11 study the state highway route continuity on Otay Mesa, and, if found logical and feasible, recommend state legislation to simplify route descriptions.

Suggested Action Plan
This can easily be accomplished with existing District resources given their authority to recommend legislative action to modify route descriptions.

Issue 3
Regarding TEA-21, Section 1213: Should Caltrans press for major involvement in development of the Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure Study through the Binational Joint Working Committee (JWC) or by other means?

Discussion
TEA-21, Section 1213 calls for a Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure Study. At the U.S. DOT public meeting on TEA-21, Sections 1118 and 1119 held in San Diego, California, August 25, 1998, federal representatives were asked the status of the Section 1213 study. They replied that it had not yet been assigned but it was assumed action would soon commence, since the report is due to Congress June 9, 1999.

There is no doubt that Caltrans should be involved in the study to assure that the stateÕs perspectives are known and its concerns are adequately addressed. The method of state involvement is dependent on the federal study plan. The JWC may not be an appropriate vehicle for input because of the short time allowed for the study.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans take a strong, active position with the U.S. DOT regarding this study.

Suggested Action
Caltrans should expeditiously contact the Director of the Office of Intermodalism, U.S. DOT, to learn how the study is to be conducted and to indicate Caltrans' keen interest in the study. Subsequent actions are dependent on the DOT's reply. 

Issue 6
Should there be State legislation to establish the intent of the State Highway System vis-ˆ-vis international ports of entry?

Discussion
At present, the State Highway System adequately serves many of the international ports of entry, but several key facilities are poorly served or are only indirectly served by the system. Construction of Route 905 on Otay Mesa in San Diego will result in all the U.S.-Mexico border POEs within the State of California being directly served by the State Highway System. However, at present, international airports within the State are not well-served by the State Highway System as several are served only by city streets. There are no current plans to substantially change this situation.

Of the international airports in California (see Exhibit 2.5), it is suggested that those identified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as "regular" be served by the State Highway System. Of the five such airports in California, Oakland and San Diego appear to be the two with the lowest level of service by the State Highway System. Brown Field on Otay Mesa in the City of San Diego is currently listed as a landing rights field but may be upgraded in the near future as a result of proposed expansion. Routes 125 and 905 (when constructed) will adequately serve this field, however.

It is difficult to assess the level of state highway service to international seaports and an analysis of the present services should be included in the state's goods movement study.

It is also suggested that legislation should be instigated by Caltrans stipulating that all state routes originating at the international border be described as beginning at the international boundary or the federal POE boundary. The problems of access control, maintenance responsibilities, and policing would be greatly simplified by changing existing statute descriptions of specific routes to read as follows:

"Route 5 is from the international border at Tijuana, Mexico, or the boundary of the Federal Port of Entry to the.."

"Route 11 is from the northerly boundary of the new Federal Port of Entry and east of the Otay Mesa Port of Entry to near..."

"Route 111 is from: (a) The international border or the boundary of the Federal Port of Entry south of Calexico to Route" 

"Route 186 is from the international border or the boundary of the Federal Port of Entry at Andrade to Route 8." (Note: this is based on existing highway access to the border in eastern Imperial County and does not include any major changes in the existing POE.)

Recommendations
It is recommended that the Streets And Highways Code, Article 3, Section 300 be revised to stipulate legislative intent regarding state highway service to international ports of entry within the state and further that all state highway routes that originate at the California-Baja California border be legislatively established as beginning at the international border or the boundary of the federal port of entry.

Suggested Action
The suggested modification to Section 300 of the Streets and Highways Code can be accomplished through the usual departmental proposal to revise and update the statutes. The changes to the legislative route descriptions can also be readily included in the District 11 proposed legislative update.

Issue 8
Should the California Border Zone (BZ) be defined by state legislation?

Discussion
For transportation planning purposes, such a zone, as defined in the La Paz Agreement, would be helpful. It is expected that various federal and other agency actions will establish this as a de facto, if not legislative, zone. Funding programs, such as those provided by NADBank, World Bank, and TEA-21 implementation, might also be associated with such a zone.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans District 11 include in its submittal for statute update "The border zone is defined as the area between the California-Baja California international border and a parallel line 100 km north."

Suggested Action
It is suggested this legislative addition be included in the Caltrans' recommendations to update the transportation statutes. To provide for this it is proposed that Section 300.1 be added to the Streets and Highways Code worded as indicated.

Issue 10
How can the California-Baja California border zone transportation planning be improved?
Discussion
Since the BBTPP Study did not determine a uniform transportation planning process that could be used for the U.S.-Mexico border, the state and the two California MPOs which cover the California-Baja California border should work with their Mexican counterpart (SAHOPE) and the five municipios to determine methods to improve the BZ transportation planning process.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans work with the BBTAC to develop a bistate transportation planning process.

Suggested Action
The best method to accomplish the process should be determined by the BBTAC. Three obvious alternatives for developing such a process are:
1. charge an ad hoc committee with the task,
2. have a participating committee member develop a proposal for consideration,
or
3. contract for its development.

Issue 11
Should Caltrans become more involved in the EPA Border XXI Program?
Discussion
The GNEB has stated their need for increased input on transportation factors that affect the Border XXI program. Air quality, transport of hazardous materials, and safety are three of their key interests. Also, it appears that this organization with its high visibility and close coordination with its Mexican counterpart, augmented with the BTTAC opportunities, can provide a robust transportation program coordination role. In addition, it is apparent that the Border XXI effort needs more transportation input as many of its interests have a strong transportation element. It, therefore, follows that the State should take a more
active role in this effort.

Recommendation
To improve binational transportation coordination, it is recommended that Caltrans, in cooperation with SANDAG and SCAG, work with the GNEB to address the transportation issues raised in the EPA U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program and similar border region programs monitored by the GNEB.

Suggested Action
Contact EPA San Diego U.S.-Mexico Border Liaison Office (Lorena Lopez, Director, telephone: 619-235-4765, FAX: 619-235-4771) to discuss Caltrans' involvement in Border XXI and GNEB. Mr. Bernard Gaillard, Director of the Office of International Transportation and Trade, Office of the Secretary, U.S. DOT is the U.S. DOT member of the GNEB.

Issue 12
Should the California Department of Transportation obtain a legal opinion of its role in dealing with Indian Nations while fulfilling its transportation responsibilities?

Discussion
There are nineteen Native American Nations located within the border zone of California (See Exhibit 4.3.). The Quechan Nation in southeastern Imperial County and the Campo Nation in southeastern San Diego County may be significantly affected by increased NAFTA trade even though both nations are in very rural areas of the border zone.

At present, the Indian Nations within the state are attempting to determine their position regarding federal and state rights and obligations. The project study team pursued, without resolution, the issue of the State's role in working with the Indian Nations to provide needed transportation facilities.

Recommendation
It is recommended that the California Department of Transportation request a legal opinion of the departmentÕs role and its responsibilities in regard to the Indian Nations directly affected by the departmentÕs projects.

Suggested Action
The Legal Division of Caltrans should make this decision.

Issue 13
Should the California Department of Transportation take an active role in the development of the SCAG proposed Southwest Passage, and work with the other U.S.-Mexico border states to extend the Southwest Passage to cover the total border area from the California coast to the Texas gulf?

Discussion
The development of the proposed Southwest Passage is of statewide importance and in the interests of other U.S. border states. Identification and development of the proposed continental freight network should result in increased economic growth throughout the area. 

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans work with SCAG and others to encourage the development and extension of the Southwest Passage as established in TEA-21, Section 1211(I)(34).

Suggested Action
SCAG should be the lead agency in developing a plan to assist in the development of the Southwest Passage. SCAG should be informed of the state's level of support for the concept.

Issue 14
Should Caltrans suggest legislation to strengthen the BTTAC organization?

Discussion
There is obvious need to strengthen the role of this cooperative effort to provide technical transportation advice and coordinate proposed projects. The method to accomplish this is not obvious. State legislation does not appear warranted or even advisable. Federal legislation to establish a new forum covering the whole U.S.-Mexico border also appears unwarranted. Cooperation in exchanging information and technical assistance can best be accomplished at the local level. It is possible that Caltrans involvement in the GNEB and the Border XXI Program can strengthen the BTTAC.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans, in cooperation with SANDAG and SCAG, seriously review the present BTTAC and develop suggested improvements to strengthen the BTTAC organization to better accomplish its goals.

Suggested Action
The Caltrans District 11 Director should request that his staff develop recommendations to improve the effectiveness of this organization, and work with SANDAG, SCAG, and others to determine suggested improvements for BTTAC consideration.

Issue 16
Should Caltrans pursue broader legislation to promote additional toll roads?

Discussion
Toll roads could pay for needed highway improvements. The limited existing toll road program appears to be well-accepted by the public. Both the California Transportation Commission and the Governor's office have also supported previous privatization and public toll road projects. Legislation in 1995 (AB 1143) concerned toll roads targeted to the border. Unfortunately, this legislation was not passed. In 1996 legislation authorizing certain routes in Imperial County as public toll roads was successful.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans encourage legislation to allow either public or private toll roads within the border zone.

Suggested Action
District 11 should suggest this legislation in the usual legislation solicitation.

Issue 22
Should Caltrans proceed with the environmental studies as soon as the present corridor preservation study for Route 11 is complete?

Discussion
The ongoing Caltrans corridor preservation study is the needed first step towards eventual implementation of a highway route to a future POE at the eastern end of the Otay Mesa. Recent legislation, providing that certain stipulated routes can be developed as tolled facilities, does not include this route. However, the Wilbur Smith study, United States-Mexico International Border Transportation Case Study. Element 2: Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for the Provision of a Toll Road Extension to the International Border, found that such a toll facility would generate a surplus of revenue over expenses by 2008 and that traffic needs will necessitate a third border crossing in the San Diego area about that time 60.

Recommendation
Considering the long lead time for project environmental clearance, it is recommended that Caltrans commence environmental studies for this route as soon as the corridor preservation study is completed and accepted. Caltrans should also request that the GSA begin the process to authorize the required new POE.

Suggested Action
Caltrans should follow accelerated project implementation procedures.

Issue 24
Is it reasonable to make Route 11 part of Route 125 and to include it in the existing privatization project as a toll road?

Discussion
The question of possible inclusion of this route in the present toll-road franchise has been discussed informally with the Caltrans project manager of the franchisee for the proposed Route 125 toll road. The project may be allowable under the provisions of the existing franchise. The franchisee has indicated that the inclusion of this route in their program may be feasible but only if it is environmentally approved beforehand. This is an another reason to accelerate the Route 11 EIR/ EIS.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans determine if this route can be included within the existing privatization franchise.

Suggested Action
Caltrans should follow established procedures to make this determination on its own.

Issue 29
Should a reassessment of the designations for Routes 11 and 125 be undertaken in the Otay Mesa area?

Discussion
There may be significant advantages to reassessing the route number designations on the Otay Mesa. Their adjustment could result in simplified routing as well as added mileage to the priority corridors program, which could result in added federal funding for the involved routes.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans reassess the route designations on Otay Mesa and, if found appropriate, request legislative changes.

Suggested Action
The route designation study should follow the usual Caltrans procedures, but it may be appropriate to inform the FHWA of the intent of the study early in the process.

Issue 30
Should the State encourage SANDAG and SCAG to undertake studies of the public transportation service connections within California at the U.S.-Mexico border (including van, taxi, airport limousine, and intercity bus service)?

Discussion
Neither SANDAG or SCAG has to our knowledge conducted any studies of transit service adequacy at the various California-Baja California border POEs. At present, not much is known about these services at most POEs. Present public transit services, with the exception of the fixed route bus and LRT service at San Ysidro are minor. 

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans urge that SCAG, IVAG, and SANDAG undertake a coordinated binational public transportation study of the California-Baja California area, focusing on coordination of the U.S. and Mexican systems.

Suggested Action
The recommendation can be implemented by working with the regional planning agencies during their development of their respective work plans. Caltrans could also provide a financial incentive for the recommended study through allocation of federal 2% planning funds as provided in TEA-21, Part A, Section 6001.

Issue 32
How can U.S. American Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements be implemented for binational pedestrian trips? (Mexico has no comparable program for elderly/ handicapped users.)

Discussion
Most of the existing POE facilities along the U.S.-Mexico border are not believed to be in full conformance with the provisions of the American Disabilities Act (ADA). The GSA is updating the existing U.S. facilities but requirements within Mexico are not known and binational pedestrian trips are not advised for the disabled because accommodations for their needs at the POEs may not be in place on both sides of the border for a long time.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans confirm with the GSA their plans for POE ADA conformance and determine standards, if any, for accommodating the disabled at border connection points within Mexico.

Suggested Action
Refer the issue to the BBTAC to ascertain GSA conformance plans and the existing Mexican requirements. Further actions should follow normal procedures.

Issue 39
Should the state pursue legislation to provide that all international airports be served by the State Highway System, including state highway service to Lindbergh Field in San Diego and the Calexico International Airport?

Discussion
Of the border zone international airports listed on Exhibit 2.5, only Lindbergh Field (San Diego International Airport) and Calexico International are not directly served by existing state highways. It is understood that a study of the ultimate terminal locations at Lindbergh Field may soon begin by the Port of San Diego. If so, the study should include state highway access. Similarly, the lack of state highway access to Imperial County's Calexico International should be studied. Since this facility is a general aviation airport, but serves as an International Airport of Entry for customs purposes, it may have special status.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans study the state highway access at Lindbergh Field and Calexico International to determine traffic service adequacy and to take appropriate action.

Suggested Action
Caltrans District 11 should consult Caltrans Division of Aeronautics regarding that Division's procedures in working with the state's airports and then develop a plan based on the Division's recommendations.

Issue 45
Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at the Calexico non- commercial POE be mitigated at reasonable cost?

Discussion
There is interest by air quality authorities as well as the federal inspection agencies in reducing the air pollution caused by queued vehicles at the POEs, especially at the downtown Calexico facility and at San Ysidro. At both of these locations there is extensive vehicle idling and high summer ambient temperatures. The effects of air degradation at these POEs is of special importance to the facility employees as well as the general community.

Limited studies have been conducted by various agencies on the air quality at POEs. However, Caltrans and others have studied the air pollution problems at various toll bridges and toll highways, which are similar facilities, and when found appropriate the responsible agencies have taken corrective measures.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans investigate or request an investigation of the air quality at this POE.

Suggested Action
Prime responsibility for air pollution belongs to the EPA and GSA and a study conducted by them is more likely to result in actions that remedy the air quality problem. Caltrans should work with them to alleviate the problem and take a leadership role only on their failure to act. 

Issue 46
Is immediate action needed to assure that the inactive Calexico commercial POE remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

Discussion
There is no obvious immediate use by the GSA for this property previously used for the Calexico POE unless egress inspections within the U.S. are soon to be established. However, other transportation uses are feasible, such as use as a Park and Ride facility. In addition, Union Pacific rail alignment could involve this property, possibly as an intermodal freight facility.

Recommendation
It is recommended that:
1. Caltrans inform the GSA of interest in this property and request that the state have first refusal on its possible disposal.
2. Caltrans contact all appropriate parties to determine possible future transportation use of the property.

Suggested Action
Caltrans should investigate the feasibility of possible future transportation need for this property by formal contact with the City of Calexico, Municipio of Mexicali, SAHOPE, IVAG, SCAG, County of Imperial, Union Pacific Railroad, Ferromex, intercity bus operators, and paratransit operators. The outcome of these contacts would dictate future actions.

Issue 47
Is action needed to assure that the Virginia Avenue property in San Diego remains with the federal government or should Caltrans request that the property be transferred to the state?

Discussion
GSA may not be fully aware that the Virginia Avenue federal property, once used for a commercial inspection facility, may be needed for highway expansion and relocation. This highway use possibility is mostly dependent on two items: the outcome of the present requirement for the Immigration and Naturalization Service to conduct southbound inspections and the indicated desires of Mexican officials to reroute I-5 southbound traffic westerly to allow improved traffic circulation in the downtown area of Tijuana. At present, both of these possibilities are uncertain. To assure maximum state flexibility, it may become important to prevent the federal property at Virginia Street from being disposed to others. 

Recommendation
It is recommended that the State of California inform the GSA of its desire to have first right of refusal for ownership of the federal Virginia Avenue property.

Suggested Action Plan
Caltrans District 11 should request this action through Caltrans Headquarters and the Secretary of Business, Transportation and Housing.

Issue 51
Can air quality degradation caused by queued automobiles at San Ysidro Port of Entry be mitigated?

Discussion
Air quality at major POEs is a problem that affects POE employees and users, as well as the air basin in general. The San Ysidro POEs have significant air quality problems because of their high level of use and the local geography.

Recommendation
It is recommended that Caltrans foster the undertaking of an air quality study at the San Ysidro vehicle POE.

Suggested Action
The recommended study should be under the direction of the EPA. The request should be made through the EPA San Diego office.

COMMENTS ON CATEGORY 1, 2, AND 3 ISSUES
The issues assigned to categories 1, 2, and 3 do not warrant development of specific recommendations at this time for a variety of reasons.

The major reason for not pursuing these issues is that the view of the new state administration regarding specific issues is not known as of this writing. The shift in the state's view resulting from the change in administration may have important effects on California-Baja California border issues. It is becoming obvious that the new administration is very interested in improving and enhancing relations with Mexico.

It is expected that a future study will include revisiting the issues resulting from this study as well as developing new issues resulting from changed conditions. This includes the impacts of possible changes in the maquiladora industries due to the expected termination of the tariff waiver on imports on January 1, 2001 as required under Article 303 of NAFTA. 

IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS
The twenty-one recommendations presented in this chapter are expected to be addressed with existing Caltrans resources and consultant assistance, which will be addressed in the previously mentioned future study.

Many of the recommendations call for legislation. These recommendations should be given priority in the hope that they can be included in the department's listing of proposed legislation for 2000. 

ENDNOTES 


1 United States Federal Highway Administration. Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade, Report to Congress. [Washington, D.C.]: FHWA, 1994, p. 31.
2 Ibid.
3 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 300.
4 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 4, Section 164.3.
5 ISTEA (Public Law 102-240, Dec. 18, 1991) Section 1105.
6 TEA-21, Section 1211(I).
7 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 305.
8 P&D Consultants, Inc. and Linscott, Law, & Greenspan, Engineers. Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Feasibility Study, Final Report and Executive Summary, prepared for San Diego Association of Governments. P&D, San Diego, Calif., May 1996.
9 SOHA Engineers. Feasibility Study: Virginia Avenue/San Ysidro Border Station Expansion, prepared for General Services Administration. SOHA, San Francisco, Calif., October 1997.
10 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 307.
11 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 308.
12 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 311.
13 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 315.
14 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 356.
15 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 394 and Section 489.
16 California State Senate Bill 416-1997.
17 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 425.
18 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 486.
19 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 632.
20 California Department of Transportation, District 11. Calexico/Coachella Valley/Los Angeles Rail Corridor Study, Final Draft prepared for the California Transportation Commission. Caltrans, San Diego, Calif., January 1995. 

21 San Diego Association of Governments. Economic Feasibility Study of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway. SANDAG, San Diego, Calif., March 1, 1996.
22 Ibid.
23 California Department of Transportation. Goods Movement Transportation System Issues, Issue Paper #1: Statewide Goods Movement Strategy, Draft, Caltrans, Sacramento, August 4, 1997.
24 TEA-21, Section 1106(d).
25 Barton-Aschman Associates Inc. and La Empresa, S. de R.L. Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study. Task 3: Most Significant Ports of entry Case Study: San Diego-Tijuana Port of Entry System. Barton-Aschman, n.p., March 27, 1996.
26 See HR&A Technical Memorandums #1 and #4 and Discussion Paper #3.
27 Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Annual Report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Good Neighbor Environmental board, n.p., April 1997, pp. 17-18.
28 United States Environmental Protection Agency. US-Mexico Border XXI Program, Executive Summary, EPA, Washington, D.C., October 1996, p.1.
29 Ibid.
30 Ibid.
31 California Streets and Highways Code, Chapter 622, Statutes of 1997, section 188.8 (l).
32 California Streets and Highways Code, Chapter 622, Statutes of 1997, section 164(d).
33 Ganster, Paul, and Alan Swendler, "NAFTA and Transportation: The U.S.-Mexican Border," a presentation made at the Transportation and Economy Seminar sponsored by UCLA Extension Public Policy Program, December 7-9, 1997, Lake Arrowhead, California.
34 Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc.. and La Empressa, S. de R.L. Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study. Task 4: The U.S. Transportation Planning and Programming Process. San Jose, Calif.: Barton-Aschman, January 9,
1998, p. 19. A complete description of the Presidential Permit process is included in the bibliography section of this document.
35 WAIS Document Retrieval, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tea21/confpt1.htm
36 Ibid.
37 Ibid. 

38 Ibid.
39 Ibid.
40 This joint working committee includes transportation planning representation from each of the ten U.S. and Mexican states along the U.S.-Mexico border. It was formed to oversee the ongoing Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study. See Task 1 report, p. 118.
41 Hamilton, Rabinovitz and Alschuler, Inc. The International Border Transportation Case Study. HR &A, Universal City, Calif., June 1995, pp. 28-30.
42 United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade: Report to Congress Pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Public Law 102-240, Sections 1089 and 6015. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1994.
43 Ibid., p. ii.
44 Ibid., p. 163.
45 Ibid.
46 California Department of Transportation. California Transportation Plan 1993. Caltrans, Sacramento, Calif., June 16, 1995, p. ii.
47 Ibid., p. iii.
48 Hamilton, Rabinovitz and Alschuler, Additional Issue Papers, op.cit., p. 55.
49 Ibid., p. 64.
50 Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Annual Report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Good Neighbor Environmental Board, n.p., April 1997.
51 Ibid., p. 9.
52 Ibid.
53 Ibid., pp. 17-18.
54 Ibid., p. 18.
55 Cordoba Corporation. The Southwest Passage. The Southwest Passage Strategic Action Plan. Draft Final Report, prepared for the Southern California Association of Governments. Cordoba, n.p., July 1997. 

56 Ibid., p. 1.
57 Ibid., pp. 24-26.
58 California Streets and Highways Code, Article 3, Section 300.
59 Wilbur Smith Associates, CIC Research, Inc., and Estrategias Consultores Asociados. United States-Mexico International Border Transportation Case Study. Element 2: Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for the Provision of a Toll Road Extension to the International Border. San Diego Association of Governments, December 1994.
60 Wilbur Smith Associates, CIC Research, Inc., and Estrategias Consultores Asociados. United States-Mexico International Border Transportation Case Study. Element 2: Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for the Provision of a Toll Road Extension to the International Border. San Diego Association of Governments, December 1994. 

EXHIBITS

EXHIBIT 2.1a
District 11 -San Diego County Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance

 

 


EXHIBIT 2.1b
District 11-Imperial County Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance

 



EXHIBIT 2.2
International Border Trade Corridors

 


EXHIBIT 2.3
Tecate Port at SR-188 & SR-94 

 

 


EXHIBIT 2.4
San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway 

 

 


EXHIBIT 2.5

International Airports in California

Location            Name of the Airport  ICAO* Destination
AIRPORTS DESIGNATED BY ICAO TO SERVE INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
Calexico           Calexico International  General Aviation
Fresno              Fresno Yosemite International Alternate
Imperial Imperial County General Aviation
Los Angeles Los Angeles International Regular
Oakland Metropolitan Oakland International Regular
Ontario Ontario International Alternate
Palmdale Palmdale Alternate
Sacramento Sacramento Metorpolitan Alternate
San Diego San Diego Int'l -Lindbergh Field Regular
San Francisco San Francisco International Regular
San Jose San Jose International Regular
Stockton Stockton Metropolitan Alternate
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS OF ENTRY
Calexico Calexico International
San Diego San Diego-Lindbergh Field
LANDING RIGHTS AIRPORTS
Arcata Arcata
Eureka Murray Field
Fresno Fresno Yosemite International
Los Angeles Los Angeles International
Mountain View Moffett Federal Airfield
Ontario Ontario International
Palm Springs Palm Springs Regional
Oakland Metropolitan Oakland International
Sacramento Sacramento Metropolitan
San Diego Brown Field Municipal
San Francisco San Francisco International
San Jose San Jose International

* International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) airports are those designated under Article 68 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation as airports serving international operations (for traffic or refueling purposes).

International Airports of Entry are designated for customs purposes. These airports are open to all international aircraft for entry and clearance purposes without the necessity of
obtaining permission.

Landing Rights Airports are those airports where incoming international flights must obtain prior permission to land and must furnish advance notice of arrival to US Customs. Blanket permission is generally given for scheduled airline flights at busy landing rights airports.
SOURCE: FAA Advisory Circular #150/5000-5C, December 4, 1996. 


EXHIBIT 2.6a
Calexico West Existing Federal Port

 

EXHIBIT 2.6b
Calexico East Commercial Port at State Route 7

 


EXHIBIT 2.7a
San Ysidro Port at Interstate 5

 


EXHIBIT 2.7b
San Ysidro, CA-Puerto Mexico, B.C. Port of Entry & Traffic Circulation

 


EXHIBIT 2.7c
Otay Mesa, CA-Mesa de Otay, B.C. Ports of Entry 

 


EXHIBIT 3.1
Senate Bill 45

Revenue Distribution 

 


EXHIBIT 4.1a
Otay Mesa Commercial Port at State Route 905

 


EXHIBIT 4.1b
State Route 905

 


EXHIBIT 4.1c

San Diego County-Programmed and Unprogrammed Projects Serving California/Mexico Border Area and NAFTA

 


EXHIBIT 4.2

California-Baja California Border Zone

 


EXHIBIT 4.3
Border Zone Indian Nations

(Tribes within 100k / 60mi of the US/Mexico Border)
Arizona
Tohono O'odham
Pascua Yaqui
Quechan/Fort Yuma
Cocopah

New Mexico
Isleta del Sur

Texas
Kickapoo

California
Barona
Campo
Cuyapaipe
Inaja & Cosmit
Jamul Village
La Jolla
La Posta
Los Coyotes
Manzanita
Mesa Grande
Pala
Pauma & Yuima
Rincon
San Pasqual
Santa Rosa
Santa Ysabel
Sycuan
Torres-Martinez
Viejas (Baron Long) 

APPENDIX A
WORKS IN PROGRESS

Covering Major Studies or Activities Affecting the California- Mexico Border

AGENCY: Bi-State Transportation Technical Advisory Committee (BTTAC)
Note: The various member organizations rotate chairperson and staff. For 1999-2000 F.Y., the Chair is Victor Carillo, City of Calexico.
U.S. committee participants are:
     California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
          Contact: Sergio Pallares
          (619) 688-3136
     San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)
          Contact: Nan Valerio
          (619) 595-5365
     Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG)
           Contact: Ed Rodriguez
           (213) 236-1903
     Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG)
          Contact: John Aramas
          (619) 339-4462
     City of San Diego
           Contact: Larry Van Wey
           (619) 533-3005
     City of Calexico
          Contact: Jose Carlos Romero
          (619) 768-2103
Mexico participants are representatives of the Secretario de Asentamientos, Humanos y Obras Pœblicas del Estado de Baja California (SAHOPE) and the municipalities of Mexicali, Tijuana, Tecate, Rosarito Beach, and Ensenada.

SUBJECT: 

This organization was established by a Letter of Intent executed May 6, 1996, which serves as a guide to defining the respective obligations, intention, and policies of the parties involved. It is not meant to authorize actions or projects, neither is it legally binding.  The committee has adopted a work program as defined in the following Mission Statement and Tasks.

MISSION STATEMENT:

The BTTAC will advise the Steering Board on transportation issues and needs in and between California and Baja California in the border area. These issues and needs are:

1. The conditions prevailing in transportation in Southern California and Baja California:
2. The establishment of appropriate transportation infrastructure policies; and
3. Programs and priorities to ensure the efficient and economical movement of persons and goods between and within the two border regions.

The Committee additionally will serve as a forum for providing technical advice to other agencies and for sharing information among the participants of activities affecting border transportation and facilitate communication among the agencies.

ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED:

1. General
a) Foster transportation planning and coordination between California and Baja California
b) Encourage federal, state, and local funding for infrastructure improvements to facilitate border crossings and international trade.
c) Evaluate border crossing facilities and operations with respect to their impact on highways, roads, and rail networks serving these facilities.
d) Promote land use protection or right-of-way preservation to allow future expansion of transportation corridor access that would improve the efficiency of cross-border travel and trade.

2. Highways
a) Encourage improved highway access between the U.S. and Mexico, with regards to both goods movement and passenger vehicle traffic. 
b) Evaluate funding for passenger vehicle and trucking-related infrastructure.
c) Monitor regulatory changes that would impact trucks on the regional highway, street, and road network.
d) Monitor the impacts of U.S. trucks operating in Mexico and Mexican trucks in the United States under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and efforts to harmonize commercial vehicle safety standards.
e) Propose improvements to procedures of the inspection agencies at the border to reduce delays in clearing vehicles and persons for entry.
f) Monitor performance of the Level of Service (LOS) of highways approaching Ports of Entry.

3. Rail
a) Consider ways to improve rail access at the international border, and determine what kinds of trackage rights and other agreements might be needed to facilitate cross-border rail shipments under the NAFTA.
b) Monitor proposals to upgrade the San Diego and Arizona Eastern ( SD&AE) railway line from San Diego to Imperial County.
c) Propose a strategy for reducing train delay, enhancing capacity, and minimizing environmental impacts for main line freight operations at the international border.
d) Propose programs to enhance safety at the railroad-highway or street interface, such as increasing the number of grade separations, eliminating hazardous crossings, and improving safety at remaining at-grade crossings.
e) Support the development of new rail intermodal markets for distances shorter than 400 miles, including intraregional goods movement by rail.
f) Promote the study of rail connections between southern California and major Mexican cities.

4. Seaports
a) Support intermodal projects that enhance land-side access to marine terminals. 
b) Propose strategies to reduce highway congestion that impacts local marine container movements.
c) Propose the reduction of limits on port hours of service that impact container and other trucks serving marine terminals.
d) Monitor the competitive situation of the Ports of San Diego and Ensenada with other west coast U.S. and Mexican ports.

5. Aviation
a) Support programs that improve ground access to commercial (cargo and passenger) airports.
b) Propose improvements to customs procedures at airports.
c) Review the need for intermodal linkages among airport, port, and rail facilities.

6. Public Transit
a) Review plans for improvement to the Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB) Transit Center at the San Ysidro Port of Entry and connections to the proposed Tijuana trolley system immediately south of the Transit Center.
b) Monitor transit improvements in the border communities to promote coordination and improved connections.
7. Pedestrian Facilities
a) Propose strategies to improve pedestrian access to Ports of Entry.
b) Monitor changes to pedestrian facilities to promote better usage.
c) Propose improvements to procedures of the inspection agencies at the border to reduce delays and speed clearances.

TASKS: Adopted tasks include:
· Review of adopted regional plans and assisting in updates and/ or formulation of such plans.
· Act as an advisory committee to California and Baja California regarding the "U.S.-Mexico Bi-State Transportation Planning and Programming Study."
· Produce a "California-Baja California Border Comprehensive Transportation Plan."
· Assist in the development of strategies to improve inter-municipal coordination and support to Baja California's inter-municipal coordination efforts. 
· Review and comment on Cities of San Diego and Tijuana "Gateway Project."
· Review multistate trade and transportation corridor and border transportation projects.
· Develop plans for international Ports of Entry and support creation of an additional Port of Entry at Otay Mesa.
· Cooperate with municipalities and cities in the designation, location, and implementation of proposed intermodal transportation facilities.
· Assist states and local government in the designation of truck routes and provision of appropriate bilingual signing.
 · Coordinate local and state long-range plans, goals, and actions to provide the necessary infrastructure to the year 2020 in the border zone. (Border zone is defined as 200 km centered on the U.S.-Mexico border.)

AGENCY: California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) District 11
                   2829 Juan Street
                   P.O. Box 85406
                   San Diego, CA 92186-5406
                  Contact: Carl West (619) 688-6681

STUDIES IN CONNECTION WITH NAFTA AND/OR U.S.-MEXICO BORDER:
· Lindbergh International Airport Ground Access Study. · State Route 11 Corridor Preservation Study.
· Interstate 5/Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Study. · San Diego Regional Goods Movement Model.
· San Diego Port Access Study. · Calexico West Border Crossing Study.
· Andrade Border Crossing/Quechan Indian Reservation and State Route 186 Corridor Study. U.S.-Mexico Port of Entry expansion.
· State Route 7 Toll Implementation Plan. · State Route 74 School Bus Safety Study in  response to State legislation. Study is expected to include possible new POE in the vicinity of Jacumba. 
· Visionary Plan for State Highway System. The goals/objectives for the Visionary Plan follow as Appendix C.

AGENCY: San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)
401 B Street, Suite 800
San Diego, CA 92101
Contact: Les Hultgren, Director of Transportation
(619) 595-5365

STUDIES IN CONNECTION WITH NAFTA AND/OR U.S.-MEXICO BORDER:
The Committee on Bi-National Regional Opportunities (COBRO) is comprised of members of the SANDAG board of directors and representatives of organizations in the region that are active in border-related matters. Tasks in their 1997-98 F.Y. include:

· Establish a Bi-National Information Clearinghouse to provide a planning information link with the governmental organizations in Baja California.
--Summarize and make available, on request as feasible, these data references in English and/or Spanish as appropriate.
--Monitor planning activities in both the SANDAG region and in Baja California to promote coordination and cooperation among the agencies involved.
--Monitor legislation regarding the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and related issues, including transportation economic, and environmental matters that
impact the San Diego border area.
--Develop and maintain an Internet web site of activities and reports, as appropriate.
--Report regularly to the COBRO on the progress of the clearinghouse.
· Continue studies into transportation infrastructure improvements and promote coordination of these programs with adjoin ing transportation projects in Baja California.
--Continue membership in the Bi-State Transportation Technical Advisory Committee to jointly plan transportation infrastructure in the California-Baja California border area. 
--Monitor progress in funding border transportation infra-structure, including State Route 905, other highways and major roads, reopening the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railroad, the reuse of the former commercial gate at Virginia Avenue, the extension of State Route 11 to the Otay Mesa East border crossing, and other binational transportation study projects.
--Conduct studies into improving transportation infrastructure in the region's border areas, including studies at Tecate and other border crossings. Probe technical assistance to Caltrans and other organizations in their activities to improve border transportation infrastructure.
· Promote binational environmental sustainability. 
--Coordinate environmental sustainability activities in the border area with the Environmental Protection Agency and its Border XXI Program.
--Establish and maintain contacts with environmental agencies and organization in U.S.-California and Mexico-Baja California.
--Review environmental plans for the San Diego region and Baja California and analyze methods of coordinating sustainability activities.
--Coordinate with research projects providing information on the Tijuana River watershed and on other GIS-related activities.
· Conduct other border-related activities, on request. 
--Provide technical assistance to member agencies regarding border-related activities.
--Conduct informational meetings in cooperation with other organizations in the binational area, upon request, such as the SANDAG/San Diego Dialogue binational luncheon series.
--Coordinate SANDAG's border-related activities with the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), academic institutions, and other agencies and organizations, as appropriate.
--Conduct periodic meetings of staff to assure internal coordination of activities and projects. 

AUTHOR: Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc.
100 Park Center Plaza, Suite 450
San Jose, CA 95113
Contact: Robert Scales (408 )280-6600,
FAX (408) 280-7533

CLIENT: Arizona Department of Transportation
205 S. 17th Avenue
Engineering Consultants Section, Mail Drop 616E, Room 293
Contact: Ron Thomas
(602)255-7125 FAX (602)255-7424
Transportation Planning Section, Room 340B
Contact: Dale Buskirk
(602) 255-8143 FAX (602) 256-7563

Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes
Dr. Barragan 635 2o piso
Col Narvarte
Mexico, D.F. 03020
Contact: Jose San Martin
(525) 519-3013/6484/3097 FAX (525) 519-8872

State of California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
Contact: Gary Gallegos, District 11 Director:
(619) 688-6668

TITLE: Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study (BBTPP Study)

SUBJECT: This study is an outgrowth of agreements between the U.S. and Mexico federal and state governments. The purpose of the study is to improve the efficiency of the existing binational transportation policy making and planning procedures and to determine funding criteria affecting the U.S.-Mexico border transportation system. The border transportation systems considered include international bridges and border crossings and land connections to major urban and/or economic centers, principal seaports, airports, and multimodal transfer stations as well as the connections to the two national transportation systems. The overall objectives are: 
· Creation of a common U.S.-Mexico border transportation data bank from which needs and priorities for immediate implementation will be agreed upon by both parties.
· Production of a set of recommendations leading to the establishment of a "Joint U.S.-Mexico Border Transportation Planning and Programming Process."
· Definition of short-, medium-, and long-range priority national and binational policy issues and actions needed to improve operating and capital expenditure efficiencies affecting the U.S.-Mexico Border Transportation Systems.
· Evaluation of the study's development process, deliverables and shortcomings, as well as recommendations for future ongoing activities to fulfill technical needs.
STATUS: Project is in its late stages. It is in four phases, involves 17 tasks and is expected to be completed by early 1998. A joint working committee with representatives from the two federal governments, the four U.S. border states and the six Mexican border states has been formed to monitor and direct the study. The State of Arizona is the contractee for the U.S. portion of the study. Up-to-date status may be found by accessing http://www.bartonaschman.com/.

ISSUES: · Coordination between the U.S. and the Mexican studies.
· To be determined

ISSUES TO CALTRANS: To be determined

AUTHOR: Estrada Land Planning, Inc.
85 Horton Plaza, Suite 700
San Diego, CA 92102
Contact: Steve Estrada (619) 236-0143, FAX 236-0578

CLIENT: San Diego Metropolitan Transit Development Board (MTDB)
1255 Imperial Avenue, Suite 1000
San Diego, CA 92101-7490
Contact: Robert Robenhymer
(619) 231-1466, FAX (619) 234-3407

TITLE: San Ysidro Intermodal Transportation Center-Preliminary Design 

APPENDIX B
TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM #1

From the
THE INTERNATIONAL BORDER
TRANSPORTATION CASE STUDY

HAMILTON, RABINOWITZ & ANSCHULER, INC.
AND OTHERS 

II. SUMMARY AND PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS
The principal findings and conclusions from the research and analysis presented in this Technical Memorandum can be summarized as follows:

The U.S./California Highway Planning Process

· In the U.S., the direct role of the Federal government in the planning of specific highway projects is rather modest compared to that of the role played by the U.S. states, although the Federal government does provide most of the funding for highway improvements and development. On the other hand, the Federal government has primary responsibility for the development and improvements to border crossing facilities, which can have significant impacts on the regional highway system.

· Among Federal agencies, the Federal Highway Administration has the primary role. It distributes billions of dollars in funds to states for the construction and preservation of the interstate highways and to improve urban and rural roads on the other Federal aid highways system. It also maintains an international unit that provides technical assistance around the world, including Mexico and Latin America.

· The 1991 Federal Interstate Surface Transportation Efficiency Act ISTEA) fundamentally revised the Federal transportation programs. One of its most unique aspects is its provision for flexible spending on highways. Funds made available from the Highway Trust Fund can, at the discretion of state and local officials, be transferred between highway programs or between highway and transit. ISTEA also provides enhanced authority for Metropolitan Planning Organizations, such as SANDAG.

· A number of other Federal Departments and agencies are involved in the development, improvement, and management of border crossing facilities. The fact that none of them is directly involved in the planning and improvement of highways leading to border crossings has frequently been cited as one of the biggest problems in coordinated regional transportation planning in the border area. Each agency is primarily concerned with issues and procedures unique to its statutory responsibilities, and no single agency has responsibility for overall coordination of Federal policies at the border.

· At the State level, the California Department of Transportation, or Caltrans, with a budget of nearly $6 billion and about 20,000 employees, is the key agency concerned with highways. Its District 11 covers the entire border area.

· In addition to carrying out a variety of responsibilities to maintain and improve the State's highway system, Caltrans has played a leadership role, within the State and among the other U.S. border states, in cross-border transportation coordination with its counterparts in Baja California and Mexico City.

· Overseeing Caltrans is the California Transportation Commission (CTC), an independent agency that reviews Caltrans' performance and budget. One of the CTC's most important roles is preparation of the biennial seven year funding forecast, and the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), which is a key capital improvements program for the State.

· The development of highway projects in California generally follows a seven step implementation process that involves a number of technical studies and public reviews, and often requires years to complete. Major pacing items affecting the schedule for such projects are the environmental review process (under State law, Federal law, or both), right-of-way acquisition, and any Federal approvals that may be needed. Federal approval is generally required when Federal funds are involved in the project, or the project directly or indirectly impacts a highway on the national system. Local governments, using sales tax revenue or other local funds, and private parties can contribute to the cost of programmed projects. This approach alters the project development process to some degree and can introduce time savings and administrative flexibility.

· A new State toll road program is still in its infancy, with four projects under way since 1989. One such proposal, SR-125, would link the northern and central part of San Diego County to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry (POE). That project is now in the environmental review stage.

· At the local level, SANDAG is playing an increasingly prominent role in regional transportation policy. This results from recent changes in State and Federal laws that give MPOs a more forceful role in the priority setting and decision making process.

· Both the City and County of San Diego also play very significant roles, as the stewards of the local streets portion of the regional highway system. The City of San Diego, in particular, has been very active in seeking coordination with the City of Tijuana on a variety of cross-border planning issues. With respect to border area transportation issues, there appears to be more difficulty in coordination between the Federal government and local government on the U.S. side alone, than there is between San Diego and the City of Tijuana.

The Mexico/Baja California Highway Planning Process
· Mexico's transportation planning system developed in a political climate characterized by substantially greater centralization than is found in the United States. This historical tradition--although it appears to have begun to change within the past few years--accounts for many of the major differences between how the two countries go about the process of planning, financing, and implementing major transportation projects.

· Mexico's Federal government is responsible for interstate highways, which includes initial planning, construction oversight, and the operation and maintenance of existing roads. In addition, the Federal government isresponsible for badges and roadways leading to international border crossings.

· The planning process for developing and maintaining interstate highways and border crossings involves a number of Federal agencies, predominately the Ministry of Communications and Transportation (SCT). In addition to SCT, the Treasury Department has budget authority and responsibility for monitoring the government's risk embodied in the toll road program initiated by President Salinas in 1989.

· The Federal government's reliance on privatization for funding governs the process of project identification, construction, and completion. This has the effect of placing constraints on what projects can and cannot be undertaken and on the ordering and timing of new road construction.

· The Federal government's planning process is largely a self-contained process, with some input from states and municipios, which are local government units that are roughly equivalent to California counties. Planning is given high priority within the culture of the Federal government. The planning process is funded at a level which does not permit a comprehensive plan to be established and supported by the sort of sophisticated computer modeling and analysis found in the United States. The range of data considered in the planning process is limited to Mexico and does not extend past the border.

· As a result, Federal preferences largely dictate the highway construction agenda and the prioritization of interstate highway projects and border crossings.

· Major arteries leading to border crossings and connections with the Federal highways are the responsibility of states and municipios, but the planning process by which these are built is driven by the Federal Social Development Agency (SFDESOL), which is responsible for planning and funding many State and local roads. This planning process is conducted largely independent of SCTÕs planning for border crossings and interstate highways and does not appear to rely heavily on SCTÕs transportation studies or analyses. SEDESOL is a Federal level agency, but each state has a representative that develops plans and priorities for their state.

· In the each of the various states, the State Department of Public Works is responsible for construction planning and the implementation of new construction plans. In the State of Baja California, this agency is called SAHOPE. The Department of Public Works prepares an urban development plan for the State, which includes plans for each of the municipio. Plans are turned over for review and input to each city in the State, if it has the resources to participate in the planning effort. Otherwise, the Department of Public Works includes the municipio in its own planning process.

· The State plan forms the basis for the State's budget request to the Federal government (CODESOL), and part of the national planning exercise. Within each State, this process is lamely coordinated by the Governor's budget office. In Baja California, this office is known as the Sect for Planning and Budget (SPP).

· The budget request is reviewed and approved at the Federal level by SEDESOL in conjunction with the Treasury Department. This process results in the establishment of an aggregate spending allowance to each state. The states, in turn, determine how to allocate the budget across various categories of public works projects, including roads.

BinationaI Highway Planning in the Other Border States
Most of the other U.S. states have created a unit within their Departments of Transportation, like that at Caltrans District 11, or have designated special staff responsible for focusing on cross-border coordination. Most of these are very new units and are staffed by a small number of people. 

· Texas has, by far, the longest history of cross-border coordination and the biggest challenge because of its extensive border with four different Mexican states. Because of this and its location relative to major concentrations of Mexican population and industry, Texas accounts for the largest share of border-area trade with Mexico. California's trade volume is about one-third the size of the combined trade in the other three U.S. border states.

· All of the other U.S. border states have had the same experience as California. Poor communication between Federal agencies responsible for border crossing facilities and state and regional agencies responsible for highway planning has resulted in inefficient crossing systems and great frustration.

· All three of the other U.S. border states have adopted legislation, or are actively pursuing it, that enables them to spend funds for highway planning or construction in Mexico or enables them to accept funds from Mexico. No such provision is under consideration in California at this time. There are specific examples where this limitation has impeded progress on significant regional highway projects (e.g., further feasibility studies for the Tijuana Loop Road).

· There are several examples of the U.S. border state transportation agency collaboration on cross-border issues, most notably through the Southwest Border Transportation Alliance. 

APPENDIX C
CALTRANS DISTRICT 11 
VISIONARY PLAN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

ISSUE:
Increases in travel, high congestion, population growth and reduced quality of life are affecting much of District 11. Responding to these conditions, while maintaining mobility is a major challenge facing the District. In addition, travel growth is outpacing population growth. Demographic changes and the shift of employment toward a service economy have contributed to growth in travel demand beyond the ability of the District's future transportation network to accommodate.

GOAL #1:
District 11's ultimate transportation system is an efficient, effective, and integrated multimodal network.

OBJECTIVE 1:
· Develop a strategic plan of vision that provides for a sustainable transportation system and addresses future mobility needs.

OBJECTIVE 2:
· Implement the District's long term strategy in all Transportation Planning and Engineering studies and projects.

OBJECTIVE 3:
· Manage additional demand on the transportation system.

OBJECTIVE 4:
· Find alternatives to limited and costly physical infrastructure improvements through new technology such as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and Automated Highway Systems (AHS).


ISSUE:
California's economic development is increasingly dependent on a competitive global trade market which places a burden on California's and the District's transportation system. Traffic conflicts between modes, and access difficulties to and from goods movement terminals inhibit California's efficient movement of goods and its economic vitality.

GOAL #2:
The Visionary Plan will define the timely and efficient movement of goods, services and information throughout the District to facilitate economic growth and provide a competitive edge for our partners.

OBJECTIVE 1:
· Add value to the State's economy through the efficient movement of goods, information and services into and through the District.

OBJECTIVE 2:
· Improve ground access to centers of economic activity and intermodal terminals, such as international airports, seaports, and land ports of entry.

OBJECTIVE 3:
· Improve intermodal connectivity of goods movement.

ISSUE:
California's and the District's physical environment is suffering under the strain of population growth, loss of species habitat and pollution of natural resources. The environmental effects of transportation projects have not been fully considered from the outset.

GOAL #3
The District is environmentally conscious concerning the existing transportation system and identifies environmental concerns at the outset of our strategic transportation plans and projects.

OBJECTIVE 1:
· Protect and enhance the environment by avoiding or minimizing environmental impacts to our transportation system strategy.

OBJECTIVE 2:
· Integrate environmental considerations/process into visionary plan.

OBJECTIVE 3:
· Work closely with environmental organizations and regulatory agencies.

District transportation projects and improvements are affected by plans and regulations from a large variety of jurisdictions and from the private sector.

Coordination within this expanded range of activities has been difficult to ensure. An open communication environment is essential to the success of the Visionary Plan.

GOAL #4
The Visionary Plan will build and strengthen partnerships through interactive and open communications with our external partners and customers.

OBJECTIVE 1:
· Create an open and communicative atmosphere with our transportation partners.

OBJECTIVE 2:
· Communicate continuously with our external partners during the development of the District's Visionary Plan.

OBJECTIVE 3:
· Designate an official advisory committee to participate in the development of the Visionary Plan. (This could be the CEAL committee.)

Caltrans District 11
10/2/1997

APPENDIX D
BORDER XXI PROGRAM FRAMEWORK DOCUMENT

Executive Summary

Taken from the Environmental Protection Agency Website
http://www.epa.gov 



INTRODUCTION
The Border XXI Program (Border XXI or Program) is an innovative binational effort which brings together the diverse U.S. and Mexican federal entities responsible for the border environment to work cooperatively toward sustainable development through protection of human health and the environment and proper management of natural resources in both countries.

Over the last 30 years, the border region has experienced a dramatic surge in population and industrialization. Unfortunately, this growth has exceeded the existing infrastructure capabilities of the region, leading to inadequate sewage treatment and hazardous and solid waste infrastructure, insufficient drinking water supplies, and dramatic impacts on habitats and the biodiversity they support. Increased urbanization and the lack of paved roads along the border have also impacted air quality.

Border XXI will help to ensure a commitment to sustainable development along the border by seeking a balance among social and economic factors and the protection of the environment in border communities and natural areas.

BACKGROUND
In order to protect, improve, and conserve the environment of the border region, in 1983 both governments signed the Agreement for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (La Paz Agreement) which provided a formal foundation for cooperative environmental efforts. The La Paz Agreement defined the border region as the area lying 100 kilometers to the north and south of the U.S.-Mexico boundary.

In February of 1992, the environmental authorities of both governments released the Integrated Environmental Plan for the Mexican-U.S. Border Area (IBEP). As the next phase of binational planning, the Border XXI Program builds on the efforts of the IBEP and increases the scope to include environmental health and natural resource issues.

In 1993, U.S.-Mexico cooperative activities were further enhanced by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and related environmental agreements. In one such agreement, the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank) were created to develop, certify, and finance environmental infrastructure projects  in the border area between the U.S. and Mexico. Additionally, the Border XXI Program will coordinate with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) also created under NAFTA to promote environmental cooperation throughout North America.

MISSION, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
Border XXI is a comprehensive program designed to achieve a clean environment, protect public health and natural resources, and encourage sustainable development. The principal goal of the Border XXI Program is to promote sustainable development in the border region which "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."

The Border XXI Program emphasizes the following strategies in advancing the goal of sustainable development:

· Ensure public involvement in the development and implementation of the Border XXI Program.

· Build capacity and decentralize environmental management in order to augment the participation of state and local institutions in implementing the Border XXI Program.
· Ensure interagency cooperation to maximize available resources and avoid duplicative efforts on the part of government and other organizations, and reduce the burden that coordination with multiple entities places on border communities.

The Border XXI Framework Document, a product of significant public input, defines five-year objectives for the border environment and describes mechanisms for fulfilling those objectives. The central challenge facing Border XXI participants is translating long-term objectives into tangible environmental improvements. As part of their overall strategic planning efforts for the border region, both governments recognize the importance of program evaluation and are committed to developing performance measures for the Program.

In the next few years, U.S. federal agencies will be incorporating performance- based management into the development and implementation of federal programs. A similar process which incorporates environmental performance measures into long-term strategic planning is being initiated in Mexico. Accordingly, the Border XXI Program will attempt to link budget processes and programmatic management to specific results through environmental performance measures. The two governments will provide the public information on specific Border XXI performance measures as they are developed. To this end, the National Coordinators will lead a Strategic Planning and Evaluation Team to review the long-term Border XXI objectives, develop indices to measure progress toward meeting these objectives, and report on performance to both those respective U.S. and Mexican entities responsible for annual budget allocations, and the general public. Considering that funding for Border XXI is received on an annual basis, it is essential that progress be clearly measured and reported to ensure the continued support of the general public and federal budget decision-makers in both countries.

PARTICIPANTS
The success of Border XXI depends on broad-based binational cooperation and collaboration between federal, state and local governments, Indian tribes, international institutions, edu-cational centers, non-governmental organizations, industry organizations, and grass-roots community organizations.

The key federal agencies involved in developing and implementing Border XXI are

1) Environmental Protection: the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Mexico's Secretariat for Environment, Natural Resources and Fisheries (SEMARNAP) and Secretariat for Social Development (SEDESOL).

2) Natural Resources: the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and SEMARNAP.

3) Border Water Resources: U.S. and Mexican Sections of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), DOI, EPA, and SEMARNAP.

4) Environmental Health: the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and MexicoÕs Secretariat of Health (SSA).

Other important Federal participants involved in the Border XXI Program include the U.S. Department of State and MexicoÕs Secretariat of Foreign Relations, as well as international institutions such as BECC and NADBank.

The six Mexican and four U.S. border states and their local entities will play an important role in Border XXI. In the U.S., the Indian Nations located in the border region will also be involved in Program implementation.

To further public participation in Border XXI, both governments will enlist the assistance of their respective advisory boards, the Good Neighbor Environmental Board for the U.S. and the Advisory Council for Sustainable Development (Region 1) in Mexico. 

IMPLEMENTATION
Border XXI will be implemented through nine binational Workgroups that integrate the efforts of other participating entities and define specific projects to achieve the ProgramÕs objectives. The Workgroups are committed to encouraging active state participation in their endeavors and exploring additional mechanisms to promote border community participation and integrated regional planning.

The six Workgroups that were initiated under the La Paz Agreement are (1) water, (2) air, (3) hazardous and solid waste, (4) pollution prevention, (5) contingency planning and emer-gency response, and (6) cooperative enforcement and compliance. Recognizing that the environment needs to be considered from a comprehensive perspective, Border XXI integrates three new Workgroups. These are (7) environmental information resources, (8) natural resources, and (9) environ-mental health.

Each year, the nine Workgroups will develop Annual Implementation Plans that will identify federal funding levels for a given year and, based upon available funds, describe specific projects that will advance the long-term objectives contained in the Framework Document. The development of these Annual Implementation Plans will ensure correlation of short-term budget realities with the long-term planning required to fulfill the Border XXI objectives. Accordingly, it must be emphasized that project implementation is contingent upon the availability of resources.

In order to track the extent to which actual projects identified in the Annual Implementation Plans build toward the five-year objectives, the two governments have agreed to issue Biennial Progress Reports that will provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the entire Border XXI Program. To ensure public input into this evaluation, both the Annual Implementation Plans and the Biennial Progress Reports will be made publicly available. In addition, in conjunction with the release of the Biennial Progress Report, the two governments will hold public meetings every two years to foster discussion on the success of Border XXI implementation.

Under SEMARNAP's decentralization program, Mexican states will have an increasingly direct role in Border XXI implementation. Therefore, both federal governments consider state environmental, natural resource, and health agencies essential participants in Border XXI implementation and will support their participation through the appropriate decentralization mechanisms.

In recognition of the diversity of the border area, the Framework Document is also organized around five distinct geographic regions. Five-year objectives are established for each region which are to be implemented through the Workgroups. These regions are: California-Baja California, Arizona-Sonora, New Mexico- Texas-Chihuahua, Texas-Coahuila-Nuevo Leon, and Texas-Tamaulipas.

BORDER XXI WORKGROUP OBJECTIVES
Natural Resources Workgroup
The border region of both countries includes a vast wealth of resources and diverse ecosystems including freshwater, marine and wetland ecosystems, deserts, rangelands, and several forest types. Identified environmental problems include: degradation of air, soil and water; introduction of exotic species; habitat loss; poaching; illegal trade in protected species; increased wildfires; illegal exploitation of forest and marine resources; over cultivation of plants and animals; overgrazing; trespassing of livestock; and, road construction.

Three topic areas have been identified for which some of the five-year objectives include:

A) Biodiversity and Protected Areas
· Improving and expanding protection of species and habitats. 
· Promoting sustainable management of natural resources in the entire border zone through productive projects to improve the quality of life for local communities.
· Managing natural protected areas to guarantee the conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity.

B) Forest and Soil Conservation
· By using native species, encouraging the conservation and sustainable use of forest, rangeland, soil, and wildlife resources.
· Undertaking efforts to stop desertification and increasing green areas by: discouraging the use and consumption of certain flora, providing tax incentives to real estate owners, and restricting road construction and urban sprawl into forested or erosion susceptible areas.

C) Marine and Aquatic Resources
· Protecting, conserving, and restoring marine and freshwater ecosystems and species in the border area with special consideration to endangered and threatened species and their habitats.
· Promoting sustainable aquaculture development while preventing habitat degradation and declines in resident species. In addition, some of the objectives that are common to the three topic areas include:

· Improving binational law enforcement capabilities through cooperation and strengthening mechanisms for verifying regulatory compliance;
· Expanding links between research and natural resource management;
· Furthering training and educational programs, as well as outreach activities that promote the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

Water Workgroup
Water pollution is one of the principal environmental and public health problems facing the border area. Deficiencies in the treatment of wastewater, the disposal of untreated effluent, and inadequate operation and maintenance of treatment plants result in health risks. Additionally, the lack of adequate distribution systems for drinking water increases potential risk for gastrointestinal infections. In the Mexican border region, the greatest need is for water and wastewater infrastructure in urban areas where sewer systems have exceeded their useful life and require rehabilitation; similar needs also exist in small communities. In the U.S. border area, there is a great need for water and wastewater infrastructure
in unincorporated communities called "colonias" as well as in small communities. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Developing and rehabilitating infrastructure for drinking water, wastewater collection and wastewater treatment;
· Establishing binational guidelines for developing and implementing pretreatment programs;
· Developing long-term binational priorities and programs for watershed planning and management;
· Continuing and expanding water quality monitoring programs to determine water quality status of surface and ground waters;
· Supporting personnel training and programs related to water management issues;
· Developing consciousness about water and promoting its efficient and rational use; and,
· Encouraging public participation in water infrastructure decision-making processes.

Environmental Health Workgroup
The border area is characterized by conditions which impact the health of border communities including: rapid urbanization without commensurate development of health and environmental infrastructure; increased industrial/manufacturing development and attendant occupational risks; increases in the number of young, working adults and children resulting from migration; the high rate of poverty; lack of sufficient drinking water supplies and inadequate drinking water quality; inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater, domestic solid and hazardous waste and industrial wastes; and improper handling and storage of pesticides.

The two governments intend to increase binational collaboration between environmental and public health entities. The ultimate goal is to address environmental health concerns that will result in a reduction of associated disease rates along the border. Within this context, environmental health is defined as human health influenced by exposure to chemical, physical, and biological agents in the community, workplace or home. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Improving the capacity of state, tribal, and local health and environmental agencies to assess the relationship between human health and environmental exposures by conducting surveillance, monitoring, and research;
· Supporting projects to improve the capacity of state, tribal, and local health and environmental agencies to deliver environmental health intervention, prevention, and edu-cational services;
· Increasing opportunities for all border stakeholders (individuals, community organizations and occupational groups) to participate in environmental health initiatives;
· Improving training opportunities for environmental and health personnel; and
· Improving public awareness and understanding of environmental health problems by providing information and educational opportunities.

Air Workgroup
Many border area residents are exposed to health-threatening levels of air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. The need to evaluate levels of targeted air pollutants is particularly urgent in heavily populated urban areas where air quality problems are compounded by emissions from increasing numbers of vehicles--many of which are older and poorly maintained; extensive industrial activity; and
numerous air sources (e.g., unpaved roads, waste disposal fires). To this end, the Air Workgroup will build on the efforts of geographic sub-workgroups to promote regionally based air quality management programs. Some of the five-year objectives include: 
· Developing air quality assessment and improvement programs (e.g., monitoring, emissions inventories, modeling);
· Continuing to build institutional infrastructure and technical expertise in the border area;
· Encouraging on-going involvement of local communities;
· Promoting air pollution abatement strategies (e.g., reduced vehicle emissions related to idling at border crossings, lowered emissions from brick kilns); and
· Studying potential for economic incentive programs for reducing air pollution.

Hazardous and Solid Waste Workgroup
Rapid industrialization and population growth have created a need for improved hazardous and solid waste management infrastructure. Important waste issues include the illegal transboundary shipment of hazardous waste, health and environmental risks posed by inactive and abandoned disposal sites, the need for proper development of new sites, and the proper operation and closure of existing sites. Priorities for addressing these issues include facilitating projects that promote sound waste management practices. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Developing a vulnerability atlas to target geographic priorities for solid and hazardous waste management activities;
· Improve monitoring of the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and substances in the border area;
· Continuing enforcement activities related to illegal hazardous waste practices; 
· Improving waste management practices and promoting waste minimization and recycling; and,
· Building institutional expertise and capability.

Contingency Planning and Emergency Response Workgroup
The Workgroup seeks to increase municipal and local capacity to prepare for and respond to hazardous material emergencies and optimizing the use of U.S. and Mexican resources in environmental emergency situations. One area of concern raised in public outreach meetings is that planning has focused on sister city areas, failing to address large areas which are not major population centers but where there still may be a risk of hazardous incidents because of increasing cross-border traffic. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Completing revision of the binational Joint Contingency Plan which provides for coordinated responses to chemical accidents affecting the border region; 
· Working with the sister cities to develop binational plans for each of the 14 sister city pairs;
· Exploring ways to solve issues raised by state and local governments, including reducing barriers to the free movement of equipment and personnel across the border to respond to chemical emergencies;
· Promoting the creation of and coordination between Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCS) in the U.S. and Local Committees for Mutual Assistance (CLAMS) in Mexico in developing information on hazardous materials inventories in computer databases; and, 
· Establishing cross-border notification system, exercising and testing annually the established procedures and response systems for all emergencies that activate the international system.

Environmental Information Resources Workgroup
While considerable information about the border environment exists, there is no comprehensive inventory of border environmental data and information to enable the U.S. and Mexico to identify and address the most urgent information needs. Therefore, the Environmental Information Workgroup will focus its efforts towards producing comprehensive information resources as well as the mechanisms needed to access the information. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Establishing an environmental information inventory; 
· Creating effective information sharing mechanisms with government agencies and among Border XXI Workgroups;
· Providing increased public access to information; · Establishing a unified Geographic Information System (GIS) for the border;
· Promoting environmental education in border communities; and
· Developing environmental indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of  environmental policies.

Pollution Prevention Workgroup
Investing resources to reduce or prevent pollution is often much more cost effective than spending resources on regulation, treatment, storage, and disposal. The mission of the Pollution Prevention Workgroup is to demonstrate and promote the benefits of pollution prevention to protect the environment and to encourage sustainable development in border communities. Because pollution prevention is a tool to be implemented by each Border XXI Workgroup, close coordination  and cooperation between the Workgroups are essential. Some of the five-year objectives include:

· Increasing the exchange of technical information at all government levels to enhance assistance and outreach to industry; 
· Increasing technical assistance and outreach to federal, state, and municipal authorities, and to the general public;
· Developing an initiative for the management and recycling of solid waste; and
· Increasing cooperation and coordination with other Border XXI Workgroups and other organizations involved in promoting pollution prevention.

Cooperative Enforcement and Compliance Workgroup
Effective enforcement of and compliance with environmental laws in the U.S.- Mexico border area are essential to ensure realization of each country's environmental goals, as well as to prevent transboundary environmental problems. Border activities relating to enforcement and compliance have centered on cooperation in detecting violations and targeting enforcement; cooperation in specific case investigations and sharing enforcement information; capacity building through training and technical consultations; and promoting voluntary compliance through environmental auditing and pollution prevention. Some of
the five-year objectives include:

· Continuing efforts to achieve compliance with environmental requirements in the border area;
· Establishing and enhancing networks of cooperation among the various state, local and Federal agencies on both sides of the border involved in environmental enforcement and compliance;
· Encouraging voluntary compliance by industry, through strategies such as environmental auditing and the use of clean technologies and less-contaminating raw materials as a complement to the strong program of law enforcement;
· Developing similar systems of reporting regarding compliance and enforcement, in accordance with the legal framework of each country;
· Promoting the development of mechanisms to enhance the evaluation of compliance with environmental law;
· Promoting pollution prevention as a mechanism for solving compliance problems; and
· Continuing to promote public participation within the legal framework of each party. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The Executive Summary provides a general description of the Border XXI Program, amplified in the Framework Document, which in addition contains appendices providing other relevant information.

Other available documents:
· Comment and Response Report--discusses the major issues raised during the public comment period and how they were incorporated into the Program.
· Annual Implementation Plans--set of each Workgroups' annual implementation plans, to be issued annually beginning in 1996.
· Biennial Progress Report--a status report and comprehensive evaluation of the Program, to be issued every two years beginning in 1998. 


APPENDIX E
REQUEST FOR LEGAL COMMENTS

Concerning State Route Interface with Border Ports of Entry 


STATE OF CALIFORNIA
BUSINESS, TRANSPORTATION
AND HOUSING AGENCY

M E M O R A N D U M
TO: MR. JESUS GARCIA December 30, 1992
District Director
District 11

FROM: DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION--LEGAL DIVISION

In re: Request for Legal Comments Concerning State Route Interface with Border Ports of Entry

You have asked for the Legal Division's comments on two questions related to the dedication of state rights of way near the U. S.-Mexico international boundary to the federal General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the proposal appears to be twofold: first, a shift in ownership could achieve cost savings
and operational benefits to the Department, and, second, a transfer would address GSA's expressed inability to expend federal funds outside their property.

Because of the general nature of the inquiry, additional information was requested from the District in early November to permit a more specific analysis. For example, the existing status of ownership interests in the affected areas could moot out part of the questions asked, e. g., land already owned by the federal government would not require dedication. Additional information about any differences between the conflicting operations at the various crossings could
also be significant in terms of arriving at appropriate solutions, e. g., high maintenance costs at one location may be amenable to a different solution than one provided to reduce liability exposure at another location. Similarly, greater detail about GSA's perceived needs could also help focus the analysis. It is also unclear whether the District wants to divest all jurisdiction over all the border highways or whether more narrowly tailored action is anticipated.
Without this information, these comments are necessarily general in scope; as more detailed information becomes available, more refined legal analysis can be provided.

QUESTION ONE
Is legislation needed to change the termination of state routes from the international boundary to the boundary of the respective ports of entry (POE)

ANSWER
Yes.

ANALYSIS
The District's first proposal is described as:
"[ T]he District is considering providing that the international
boundary is either at the actual surveyed border or at the boundary
of the U. S. P[ ort] O[f] E[ntry]."

This suggests the District is considering some action redefining the termini of the routes in question.

The establishment of state highway routes (and their termini) is exclusively within the authority of the Legislature; the Department has no independent statutory authority to redefine the termini of a state route. The establishment of a state highway is a multitiered process shared by the Legislature, the California Transportation Commission, and the Department. 

The inherent power to establish state highways resides in the Legislature. (Board of Supervisors v. California Highway Commission (1976) 57 Cal. App. 3d 952.) The Legislature has established the routes of the state highway system by statute. Streets and Highways Code sections 300-635 set out the termini of the state's 281 highway routes. The six routes here in question (I-5, 7, 111, 186, 188 and 905) all include the "international boundary" as at least one of their statutorily designated termini.

The Legislature has delegated part of its power over highways to the California Transportation Commission (Commission). (Sts. & Hy. Code § 79.) The law is clear in providing that the Commission can select, adopt, and determine the location for highways' routes only between the termini established by the Legislature: the Commission may "select, adopt, and determine the location for state highways on routes authorized by law." (Emphasis added.) (Sts. & Hy. Code § 75( a).)

The Department is authorized and directed to "lay out and construct all state highways between the termini designated by law and on the locations as determined by the commission." (Sts. & Hy. Code § 90.) This office has previously determined that while the Department can make minor adjustments in an existing route to make more suitable its connection with its designated termini, substantial changes in existing termini cannot be made. (H. S. Fenton opinion, March 26, 1954; T. A. Carroll opinion, March 11, 1964.) The applicable statutory scheme in effect at that time has remained essentially unchanged, and the conclusions of those opinions remain sound. 

This statutory scheme grants the Legislature sole authority to establish a state highway route and its termini. The two terms-- "international border" and "port of entry"--have distinct legal meanings and describe different features. The term "international
boundary" refers to the boundary between the United States and Mexico. The location of the boundary between the U. S. and adjacent countries is defined by treaty; under the U. S. Constitution, authority to make treaties (and set boundaries) is exclusively the prerogative of the federal government. (Pettibone v. Cook County,
Minn. (1940) 31 F. Supp. 881, 884; Coffee v. Groover (1887) 123 U. S. 1, 16; Scandinavian Airline System Inc. v. County of Los Angeles (1961) 56 Cal. 2d 11).

The California Constitution of 1849 adopted the U. S.-Mexico international boundary established in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo as the state border Art. XII, § 1); the current California Constitution continues the 1849 border (Art. III, § 2).

The term "border" (or "boundary") has several legal meanings. In the context of federal customs enforcement, immigration, and border searches, it has been interpreted with some elasticity, especially around ports. (United States v. Glaziou (2d Cir. 1968) 402 F. 2d 8, 12-3, cert. denied 89 S. Ct. 999 (1969).

However, in the context of defining physical or geographic limits, the international boundary is a finite and identifiable line. A "patent distinction is drawn between the boundaries delineating the geographic territory of the United States and the customs territory
of the United States." (Hawaiian Independent Refinery v. United States (1978) 460 F. Supp. 1249.) Unlike the border "between the United States and Mexico," with a "fixed line ascertainable by surveys," the border around
a seaport may be indefinite. (United States v. Fee Ngee How (1952) 105 F. Supp. 517, 521.) Thus, when used to define the physical termini of a state highway, the latter, more finite definition of the term "international boundary" as a fixed, ascertainable line appears controlling.

The term "port of entry" is also a term of art, containing the same element of definiteness. Code of Federal Regulations, title 19, section 101.1( m), defines a port of entry as:

"any placed designated by Executive Order of the President, by order of the Secretary of the Treasury, or by Act of Congress, at which a Customs officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and to enforce the various provisions of the Customs and navigation laws. The terms "port" and "port of entry" incorporate the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a port director when such port is one other than a district headquarters port." (Emphasis added.)

Thus, while the definition of a port of entry encompasses a broad range of activities, it is defined in terms of a place having geographic limits.

San Diego, Andrade, Calexico, and Tecate are the designated ports of entry in the San Diego area. (19 C. F. R., 5 101.3.) Although the District's memo does not disclose the physical limits of these ports of entry, they are clearly ascertainable, either by inquiry to GSA or by title search. Had the Legislature intended to set the termini of the routes in question at the limits of such "ports of entry," rather than at the "international boundary," it could have done so. There is no statutory authority for the Department to administratively substitute one term for the other. If a change in termini is necessary, it is the Legislature which must make the change.

QUESTION TWO
Are there legal problems in the dedication of right of way to the federal General Services Administration?

ANSWER
Yes.
ANALYSIS
The District's second proposal is described as: "This [change in location or termini] would then provide that the GSA would be responsible for the highway in certain locations. Further, the District is considering dedication of rights of way adjacent to certain POE's to the Federal GSA."

Although this question addresses one particular form of transfer, implicit in it is the broader issue of what interests the Department can transfer in this context. Accordingly, the requirements of dedication will be discussed briefly, followed by a more detailed
examination of the Department's overall authority to transfer property.

Dedication
Dedication involves the voluntary transfer of an interest in some property to the public. (Guns v. Fontes (1957) 148 Cal. App. 2d 351.) It is strongly
contractual in nature, requiring both an offer by the owner and an acceptance by the public. (Mitter v. Fowle (1949) 92 Cal. App. 2d 409.) Dedication to the federal government introduces several additional considerations. As a general matter, the federal government may acquire property through donation;
however, the acceptance of any property which imposes any burden or duty on the U. S. must be authorized by statute. (Story v. Snyder (D. C. Cir. 1950) 184 F. 2d 454, 456.) Thus, any right-of-way dedication with associated costs or obligations would have to receive prior federal assent. Similarly, the transfer of jurisdiction over state lands to the federal government also requires prior federal acceptance. (40 U. S. C., § 255.) Accordingly, the GSA's statutory authority would have to authorize the acceptance of the property for whatever purpose the District anticipates, and the dedication (and any desired shift in jurisdiction) would have to be acceptable to the U. S.

State Authority to Transfer Ownership
The Department has full possession and control of all property and rights in property acquired for state highway purposes (Sts. & Hy. Code 5 90). However, state lands devoted to public use may be disposed of only in the manner specified by statute. (People v.
Chambers (1951) 37 Cal. 2d 552.) The Department's authority to dispose of property is governed by the Streets and Highways Code.

The Legislature has provided the Department with specific statutory authority to transfer property to the U. S. Government in certain instances. Streets and Highways Code section 73.5 authorizes the conveyance of lands acquired for highway purposes to the U. S. where jurisdiction over such lands have been ceded by the Legislature to the U. S. for a national park. Although section 73.5 is not applicable here, it illustrates the Legislature's ability to grant the Department authority to transfer property to the federal government. Sections 820.5-823. S contain similar specific authorizations to enter certain agreements for highway construction (including property acquisition) with the federal government.

The Department's only other authority specifically related to the federal government is Streets and Highways Code section 109.5, which authorizes the Department to enter into agreements with the United States for the exchange of any property whenever the construction of
any facility of the United States requires construction, relocation, or other changes in any state highway. This section could support transfer if the facts disclose the construction of a federal facility is involved at the respective ports of entry.

The Department's general authority to sell or exchange property appears of limited use here. Typically, the Department disposes of property no longer needed for highway purposes as excess, pursuant to the procedures set out in Streets and Highways Code section 118. But here, the applicability of this section is limited by the nature of the property sought to be transferred. Section 118( a] provides:

"Whenever the department determines that any real property or interest therein, previously or hereafter acquired by the state for highway purposes, is no longer necessary for those purposes, the department may sell, contract to sell, sell by trust deed, or exchange the real property or interest therein in the manner and upon terms, standards, and conditions established by the commission."

Conveyances under this section require the approval of the Commission. [Sts. & Hy. Code § 118( b).]

Section 118.6 defines "excess real property" as: "all land and improvements situated outside of calculated highway right-of-
way lines not needed or used for highway or other public purposes,..., and available for sale or exchange."
[Emphasis added.)

Thus, section 118.6 authorizes the sale or exchange of land outside the right of way "not needed or used for highway or other public purposes." By implication, land or improvements "needed or used for highway or other public purposes" would not be available for sale or exchange. The portions of the six existing state routes in question would not currently qualify either as "outside of calculated highway right-of-way lines," or "not needed or used for highway or other public purpose." Consequently, section 118 appears applicable only after the legislative change in termini or rescission had deleted the portions of the six routes in question.

However, even after deletion or rescission, the language of section 118.6 continues to raise a question. In effect, the District's proposal includes the transfer of part of an operating highway, to be continued in use as an operating highway after transfer to the federal government. Under section 118.6, land (and improvements) does not become "excess" unless it is outside calculated right-of-way lines, and "not needed or used for highway or other Public purposes." Even after legislation or rescission, it appears the deleted facilities will be used for highway purposes, and may
be used for other public purposes, e. g., proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) border development zone facilities.

An additional question about the availability of the property for transfer is raised by the statutory scheme applicable to the disposition of superseded or relocated routes. Streets and Highways Code section 73 and the Public Streets, Highways and Service Easement Vacation Law (Sts. & Hy. Code §§ 8300-8330.5) provide alternate means for the disposition of relinquished or vacated state highways.

Streets and Highways Code section 73 requires the Commission to "relinquish to any county or city any portion of a state highway within such county or city which has been deleted from the state highway system by legislative enactment." Thus, if the Legislature
deletes portions of the six routes, section 73 appears to require those portions to be relinquished to the appropriate county or city. No provision exists for relinquishing a deleted portion of a state highway to the federal government.

Section 73 further provides the Commission may "relinquish any portion of any state highway which has been superseded by relocation," but again refers only to the "concerned county or city."

The Public Streets, Highways, and Service Easement Vacation Law (Sts. and Hy. Code §§ 8300-8330.5) creates an alternate procedure for the disposition of a state highway after relocation: "vacation." Vacation means the complete or partial abandonment of the public right to use a highway (Sts. & Hy. Code 5 8309). Section 8330.5 provides:
"... the commission may retain, relinquish to a local agency pursuant to Section 73, or summarily vacate a state highway that has been superseded by relocation."

If the Commission chooses to vacate the relocated routes in lieu of relinquishing them to the locals, it must still first provide a relinquishment notice to the local entity, which, within 90 days, must agree that the highway is not needed for public use and
should be vacated. Sts. & Hy. Code58330.5( b).)

If the property beneath the vacated highway is owned by the state, and the Commission determines it is no longer needed by the public, the Department may dispose of the property pursuant to section 118. (Sts. & Hy. Code 5 8355( b).) If vacation would cut off all access
to the property of any person which adjoined the highway prior to relocation, the Commission must either retain the route or relinquish it pursuant to section 73.
(Sts. & Hy. Code § 8330.5.)

Transfer of Jurisdiction
A state may lawfully cede jurisdiction over lands lying within the state to the United States. (Peterson v. U. S. (1951) 191 F. 2d 154, cert. denied; State of Cal. v. U. S. (1951) 342 U. S. 885; Johnson v. Morrill (1942) 20 Cal. 2d 455.) The process for transferring jurisdiction over state lands (" cession") is governed by sections 100-127 of the Government Code; because cession entails the relinquishment of sovereignty by the state over part of its territory, action by the Legislature is required. (Gov. Code, §§ 100, 110, and 111.)

The federal government is authorized by the U. S. Constitution to exercise exclusive jurisdiction over all places purchased with the state Legislature's consent, by condemnation, or by cession. (Art. I, 5 8, cl. 17; James v. Dravo Contracting Co. (1937) 58 S. Ct. 208.) This exclusive jurisdiction can be limited by agreement between the respective governments. The extent of the jurisdiction taken depends on the terms of the Agreement or cession and requires acceptance by the U. S. Government. (40 U. S. C., 5 255.)

The need for a transfer of jurisdiction and the extent of any such transfer is contingent on the specifics of the District's proposals.

ALTERNATIVES
Depending on the facts and the District's objectives, several other options might be worth consideration, given the issues associated with legislation, rescission or transfers of juris-diction; these include: 1) entry into a cooperative agreement with the United States pursuant to Streets and Highways Code section 114, 2) creation of a joint powers authority pursuant to Government Code section 6500, or 3) transfer to the U. S. of only a nominal interest sufficient to support federal expenditures. 

Cooperative Agreement
Streets and Highways Code section 114 (a) authorizes the Department to enter into cooperative agreements with other public entities for the performance of construction, improvement, or maintenance of any portion of a state highway, or for the apportionment of the expense of the work. Depending on the nature and extent of the problems presented at the six locations, a master cooperative agreement or several individual agreements might be sufficient to address the District's concerns by shifting maintenance responsibilities to
the GSA.

In conjunction with this and subsequent alternatives, the District should confirm the existing status of the ports of entry or other relevant federal facilities to determine whether or not a sufficient basis already exists for seeking federal financial participation.

Joint Powers Authority
If authorized by their governing bodies, two or more public agencies may by agreement jointly exercise any power common to the contracting parties (Gov. Code, § 6502~; federal agencies are defined as public agencies for purposes of this statute (Gov. Code, § 6500). To the extent the facts disclose a joint operation, a joint powers agreement would appear appropriate to allocate responsibilities for any joint facility.

Transfer of Nominal Interest
The GSA has apparently indicated that federal "ownership" is required to support their financial participation. Has the GSA made clear what the extent of such an interest must be or what the basis of this assertion is? Depending on what the federal requirements
actually are, it may be possible to transfer some interest less than fee (lease, easement, license, or some other form of use) which would still support federal funding.

CONCLUSION
Even though these comments are necessarily preliminary, it appears some action by the Legislature and/ or the Commission will be likely. Given the complexity of the situation and the unusual circumstances apparently involved, a package addressing issues beyond mere changes in the route termini seems worth consideration. This package could provide specific authority to transfer highway facilities to the United States, achieve any jurisdictional shifts deemed appropriate, and address issues associated with border zone development related to the NAFTA.

BRUCE A. BEHRENS
Attorney
bcc: Daniel C. Murphy, III, SFLO
Anthony J. Ruffolo/ Terry Bergeron, LALO
Jeffrey A. Joseph, SDLO
Opinion File 


APPENDIX F
IISTPS TESTIMONY OF BZ DEFINITION 
Testimony from The Norman Y. Mineta International Institute
for Surface Transportation Policy Studies
George E. Gray, Research Associate
Corridors and Borders One-Dot Conference
San Diego, Calif. August 25, 1998

My name is George E. Gray, and I am a Research Associate at the Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies at San José State University. This Institute, which was created under the ISTEA legislation in 1991, recently completed a study for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) entitled, Impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement on Transportation in the Border Areas of the U.S. with Emphasis on the California Border with Mexico. A follow-up study is planned to get underway within the next few months.

The Phase I study includes 21 recommendations for Caltrans consideration, several of which are pertinent for inclusion in the implementation of Sections 1118 (The National Corridor Planning and Development Program) and 1119 (Coordinated Border Infrastructure Program). Of the 21 recommendations, the one most pertinent to today's topic is the refinement of the term "Border Region." Section 1119 includes, under subsection (e) Definitions, (1) Border region -- the term "border region" means the portion of a border State in the vicinity of an international border with Canada or Mexico.

This definition should not preclude establishing a more specific border region definition for the implementation of the Federal responsibilities under TEA-21. The 1983 Agreement for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area (the La Paz Agreement) between the U.S. and Mexico provides a formal foundation for cooperative environmental efforts which includes their transportation aspects. The Agreement defines the border region as lying 100 kilometers to the north and south of the U.S.-Mexico boundary. Many subsequent studies, including the Binational Transportation Planning and Programming Study and the comprehensive Border XXI Program are in agreement with this definition. Further, it is my understanding that the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank) also use this definition. For uniformity, I urge that implementation of TEA-21 include the La Paz Agreement for the definition of the border area. The Mineta Transportation Institute continues to be interested in working with U.S. Dot on research needs that may arise from NAFTA, and on other international transportation policy issues. We thank you for your consideration. 


ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ACTPN Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations
ADA American Disabilities Act
BBPC Binational Border Port Council
BBTPP Study Binational Border Transportation Planning and Programming Study
BDAC Border Development Agency (or Authority) of the Californias
BECC Border Environment Cooperation Commission
BNSF Burlington Northern-Santa Fe Railroad
BTTAC Bi-state Transportation Technical Advisory Committee
BZ Border zone
Caltrans California Department of Transportation
CCIT California Council on International Trade
CEQA California Environmental Quality Act
COBRO Committee on Bi-National Regional Opportunities
CSL California State Library
CT California Department of Transportation
CTC California Transportation Commission
CVEF California Vehicle Enforcement Facility
CVIBOS Commercial Vehicle/International Border Operations System
DOT Department of Transportation
EDD Employment Development Department
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EDIA Electronic Data Interchange Association
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EU European Union
F&E Freeway and Expressway System
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
FNM Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Mexico
FTDU Foreign Trade Data Users Group
GAO General Accounting Office
GMAP Goods Movement Action Plans
GNEB Good Neighbor Environmental Board
GNP Gross National Product 
GSA General Services Administration
GVW Gross Vehicle Weight
HR&A Hamilton, Rabinovitz and Alschuler I Interstate
IBEP Integrated Border Environmental Plan
IBTC International Border Trade Corridor
IBWC International Boundary and Water Commission
ICES Intermodal Corridors of Economic Significance System
IGN Intermodal Goods Movement Network
IGPAC Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee
IIP Interregional Improvement Program
INS Immigration and Naturalization Service
IPAC Industry Policy Advisory Committee
IRRS Interregional Road System
IRT Intermodal Rail Truck
ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems
IVAG Imperial Valley Association of Governments
JWC Joint Working Committee
LOS Level of Service
LRGV Lower Rio Grande Valley
MIS Major Investment Study
MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization
MTDB Metropolitan Transit Development Board
NADBank North American Development Bank
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
NCITD National Council on International Trade Documentation
NCS NAFTA Coordinating Secretariat
NEXTEA National Economic Crossroads Transportation Efficiency Act
NHS National Highway System
PDP Project development plan
PBI Protexa Burlington International
POE Port of entry
PSR Project study report
RIP Regional Improvement Program
RTIP Regional Transportation Improvement Program (or Plan)
RTP Regional Transportation Plan
SAHOPE Secretario de Asentamientos, Humanos y Obras Pœblicas del Estado de Baja California 
SANDAG San Diego Association of Governments
SCAG Southern California Association of Governments
SD&AE San Diego and Arizona Eastern
SDIV San Diego and Imperial Valley Railroad
SEMARNAP Secretaria de Mexico Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
SHA State Highway Act
SHOPP State Highway Operation & Protection Program
SHS State Highway System
SMP System Management Plan
SP Southwest Passage
SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary
SR State Route
STIP State Transportation Improvement Program (or Plan)
STP State Transportation Plan
STP Surface Transportation Program
SWBTA Southwest Border Transportation Alliance
TACE Technologically Assisted Crosser Entry Program
TDCC/ Transportation Data Coordinating Committee of the EDIA
TSM Transportation System Management
U.S. United States
UCB University of California, Berkeley
UCSD University of California, San Diego
UP Union Pacific
WIM Weigh in motion 


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

American Trucking Associations, Inc., Office of International Affairs. South of
the Border: U.S. Trucking in Mexico. A Handbook for Understanding the Rules, Regulations and Opportunities for U.S. Companies in the Mexican Trucking Market.
Alexandria, Va.: ATA, 1992. 50 pp.
CT Dist11 TRUCKING 002
ABSTRACT: This handbook provides background on demographics, political and economic climate, the Mexican motor carrier industry, border agreements affecting trucking, customs regulations, physical conditions of highways, and Mexican business customs. Also included are a glossary of Mexican trucking terms and a directory of
organizations on both sides of the border that are of interest to truckers.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Arizona-Mexico Commission and Comision Sonora-Mexico. Plenary Session = Reunion Plenaria. 
Phoenix, Ariz.: AMC, June 1993. 34 pp. (in English and Spanish).
CT Dist11 ARIZONA 005
ABSTRACT: This document lists the initiatives and recommendations identified by the 15 committees of the Arizona-Mexico Commission and the Comisi0n Sonora-Arizona for an Arizona-Sonora Regional Plan for Economic Development.
FINDINGS: See recommendations.
RECOMMENDATIONS: A number of recommendations from various committees are presented in English and Spanish. The committees covered agriculture, art and culture, the environment, education, finance and banking, physical infrastructure, international services,
legal advisory, legislation, media/ communications, livestock, small business, large industry/maquilas, public health, sports, and tourism.

Arizona-Mexico Commission. Arizona-Mexico Commission Policy Manual.
Phoenix, Ariz.: AMC, June 1993. 13 pp.
CT Dist11 ARIZONA 004
ABSTRACT: This document provides the primary objectives of the Commission, a brief history, and a listing of the policies dealing with financial organization, membership, directors, officers, executive  committee, committees, resolutions, offices, negotiable instruments, amendment of by-laws by directors, and translation equipment.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Barrett Consulting Group. San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway Element No. 1 -Engineering Study. 
San Diego, Calif.: San Diego Association of Governments, March 1995. 105 pp.
CT Dist11 RAIL TRANSPORTATION 009
ABSTRACT: The San Diego and Arizona Eastern (SD&AE) railway line, if reopened for service between San Diego and Plaster City in Imperial County, would reestablish the last transcontinental railroad link built in the West since the early 1900s. Reopening the railroad line would offer a strategic, economic, and transportation link to markets in the United
States and Mexico. The report reviews the condition of the line and the costs to reopen, modernize, and revitalize the line between San Diego and Plaster City. Funding sources are also reviewed for their potential in aiding the restoration of the line.
FINDINGS: Opening line is feasible from an engineering standpoint.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Barrett Consulting Group. San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway Element No. 2 -Engineering Study. 
San Diego, Calif.: San Diego Association of Governments, May 11, 1995. 70 pp.
CT Dist11 RAIL TRANSPORTATION 010
ABSTRACT: This report looks at three railroad spur alternatives to serve the Otay Mesa Industrial Area and projected costs to build the facility. The three alignments are examined with respect to selection criteria developed through evaluation of environ-mental, geotechnical, physical, and operational constraints. Affected land uses and future land development activities are also analyzed, and right-of-way preservation actions are recommended as well. 
FINDINGS: Of the three alignments studied, the Wruck Canyon route is the most feasible.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
· Perform preliminary design and routing studies. 
· Perform California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) compliance study.
· Plan modest railyard and intermodal facilities. 
· Amend land use and circulation element plans to incorporate the preferred alignment, railyard, and intermodal facilities.
· Implement right-of-way dedication requirements for land development discretionary activities.

Barry, Tom, Harry Browne, and Beth Sims. Crossing the Line: Immigrants, Economic Integration, and Drug Enforcement on the U.S. Mexico Border. 1st ed. 
Albuquerque, N.M.: Resource Center Press, 1994. U.S.-Mexico Series No. 3. viii, 146pp.
UCB Chicano HD91 .B2
UCD Law Lib HC137.M46 B37 1994 Stacks
UCD Shields HC137.M46 B37 1994
UCLA College HC 137 M46 B37 1994 2 Hour Loan
UCSB Main Lib HC137.M46 B37 1994 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSD IR/PS HC107.A165 B377 1994
ABSTRACT: This book takes a close look at the U.S.-Mexico borderlands and the challenges that face the two nations. The society and economy of the borderlands reflect historic tensions and divisions between the two nations. At the same time, the increasing
interdependence of the two nations is most apparent in the border region. The book closely reviews the cross-border problems presented by the northward migration stream, the maquila economy, the narcotics trade, and the infrastructure crisis.
FINDINGS: These problems are being extended beyond the borderlands more and more.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 5: Profiles of Western U.S.-Mexico Border Crossings, sponsored by the Office of Policy... 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1993]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB95-122453 Microfiche
NTIS PB95-122453/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report is Volume 5 of the seven volume TransNET West Project final report on Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America and contains detailed profiles of the 38 border crossings between the U.S. and Mexico.
FINDINGS: None.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Betts, Dianne C., Daniel J. Slottje, and Jesus Varga-Garcia. Crisis on the Rio Grande: Poverty, Unemployment, and Economic Development on the Texas-Mexico Border. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994. xi, 195pp.
UCB Main HC137.M46 B47 1994
UCB Moffitt HC137.M46 B47 1994
UCD Shields HC137.M46 B47 1994
UCI Main Lib HC137.M46 B47 1994 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSC McHenry HC137.M46 B47 1994
UCSD SSH HC137.M46 B47 1994
NRLF W 121 998 Request item at
UCB Bancroft Library.
ABSTRACT: The poverty in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) is a direct result of economic and social processes which have worsened over time and created poverty levels without equal in the rest of northern Mexico and the United States. This study attempts to
characterize, quantify, and analyze the conditions under which people in this region live and why they live this way.
FINDINGS: It is evident from the analysis of socioeconomic conditions that LRGV is an area full of tremendous economic potential. At the same time there exists a severe degree of poverty. The problems of the LRGV are many-faceted. There are cultural and historical roots that must be accounted for when proposing solutions.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Every effort must be made to develop a binational plan for social and economic development that will meet both the short-term and long-term goals mentioned throughout this study.

Binational Task Force on Economic Development and Transportation Infrastructure. Planning for Prosperity in the San Diego/Baja California Region. Advance Copy, sponsored by Greater San Diego Chamber of Commerce, managed by San Diego Dialogue. 
San Diego, Calif.: University of California, San Diego, September 1993 (cover page: October). 58 pp.
CT Dist11 SAN DIEGO COUNTY 001
UCSD SSH C200 C44 P76 Documents San Diego 
ABSTRACT: This report discusses: 1) seven conclusions that must be considered when assessing cross-border economic needs and opportunities and 2) six conclusions concerning the region's cross- border transportation needs. Finally, it gives five recommendations for planning for prosperity. A bibliography is included.
FINDINGS: A binational approach to addressing the San Diego/Tijuana regional problems is needed.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The key recommendations are that the cities of San Diego and Tijuana, with the assistance of the San Diego Association of Governments, "should convene an official binational task force to clarify, through a broadly consultative process, the legal requirements, powers, and governance and administrative structure of a Cross-Border Transportation and Development Authority."

Blake, Tupper Ansel (photographs). Two Eagles: The Natural World of the United States-Mexico Borderlands = Dos Aguilas, text by Peter Steinhart. 
Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, c1994. xvii, 202 pp.
UCB Bancroft f QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
UCB BioSci f QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
UCB Earth Sci f QH104.5.S6 B58 1994 Folio shelf
UCD Shields QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
UCI Sci Lib QH104.5.S6 B58 1994 Bar Oversize
UCLA Biomed QH 104.5 S6 B636t 1994 Restricted
UCLA College QH 104.5 S6B58 1994
UCLA URL QH 104.5 S6B58 1994
UCR Rivera QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
UCR Rivera QH104.5.S6 B58 1994 Cage
UCSB Main Lib QH104.5.S6 B58 1994 Sci-Eng
UCSC Science QH104.5.S6 B58 1994 Oversize
UCSD SSH QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
UCSD Undergrad QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
CAS Mailliard QH104.5.S6 B58 1994
ABSTRACT: Photographer Tupper Ansel Blake and writer Peter Steinhart provide a fresh look at the U.S.-Mexico borderland. While Blake captures the natural, biological beauty, Steinhart documents the encounter of nature and the degradation of it by the rapid urbanization of the borderland. 
FINDINGS:
None applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

BRW, Inc. San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway Port of San Diego Extension and Railway Ancillary Facilities. Final Report, prepared for San Diego Association of Governments. 
San Diego, Calif.: SANDAG,
January 27, 1996. 129 pp.
CT Dist11 RAIL TRANSPORTATION 011
ABSTRACT: This report examines rail facility requirements to accommodate projected freight on the reopened San Diego & Arizona Eastern (SD&AE) "Desert Line." The analysis focuses on examining alternatives to provide rail access to the two Port of San Diego Marine Terminals, intermodal facility requirements and locations, and rail storage yard requirements. This report also considers findings of three previous study reports
and analyzes an operations plan and potential funding sources.
FINDINGS: Improvements feasible from an engineering standpoint. A number of improvement options exist for service to the Port of San Diego and location of a rail intermodal yard.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Pursue funding to reopen the SD&AE line between Tecate and Imperial Valley.

BRW, Inc., and others. San Ysidro Intermodal Transportation Center Feasibility Study, prepared for Metropolitan Transit Development Board [San Diego]. 
San Diego, Calif.: MTDB, June 1994. various pagings.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-CALIFORNIA 007
ABSTRACT: This study recommends improvements at the San Ysidro Port of Entry to better serve the transportation needs at this important international border crossing with Mexico. Several alternatives were investigated with the recommendation being for a moderate improvement. Funding options are presented as well as major impacts.
FINDINGS: A modest improvement to traffic circulation, pedestrian facilities, and parking is warranted.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Preliminary design and environmental studies for the recommended alternative should proceed. 

Building the Border Infrastructure of Tomorrow, Final Report from the U.S.- Mexico Border Infrastructure Conference Hosted by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Mexican Secretariat of Commerce and Industrial Development in San Antonio, Texas, August 4-6, 1996. n.p.: DOC, December 1996. 75 pp.
CT Dist11 INFRASTRUCTURE 010(b)
ABSTRACT: This is the final report of the above cited conference. The conference was divided into three equal parts: a plenary session to define progress and problems in infrastructure development; four workshops to develop strategies to meet energy, transportation, environmental, and housing infrastructure priorities; and a plenary session to summarize the discussions and define the next steps.
FINDINGS: There has been much progress since a similar meeting in 1993. The formation and establishment of NADBank and BECC have been positive steps. Coordination and cooperation between various agencies on both sides of the border has improved. However, financing problems still are serious, poverty is pervasive and resources are few.
RECOMMENDATIONS: In the transportation area, support for increased privatization was evidenced along with public/private partnerships and increased cooperation to balance the need for improved transportation with effective law enforcement.

Burgess, P., P. Hansen, and L. Higgs Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 1: A Summary Report, sponsored by the Office of Policy Development, Federal Highway Administration. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1994]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB95-141263 Microfiche
NTIS PB95-141263/XAB
ABSTRACT: This is the first volume of the seven volume TransNET West Project Final Report on Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America and summarizes the salient content of the following 6 volumes:
Volume 2: Trade and Transportation in the Western U.S. and Canada.
Volume 3: Trade and Transportation between the U.S. and Mexico.
Volume 4: Profiles of Western U.S.-Canada Border Crossings.
Volume 5: Profiles of U.S.-Mexico Border Crossings. 
Volume 6: Reaching Out: A Compendium of Stakeholder Views.
Volume 7: Commissioned Special Reports.
This summary report analyzes trade and traffic flows in western North America in terms of origin and destination, transportation mode and type of commodity, and the status of border infrastructure, both physical and institutional. It presents the major policy implications of the findings and makes recommendations about future federal action.
FINDINGS:
· The role of the border is significantly changing from being a political, economical , and social barrier to a gateway to economic expansion.
· There is an urgent need to define the national interest in the border and address the institutional changes and infrastructure investments to cope with border problems
· Federal operations at the border create transportation and traffic problems.
· Transportation documentation practices and related business and regulatory procedures need to be harmonized.
· Transportation and trade statistics need to be improved. · The federal government needs to foster binational planning at the regional, state, and local levels.
· Federal transportation policy and funding to states has overlooked border needs.
· The transportation system in Mexico is the weakest link in the continental transportation system.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
· Congress should establish a private-sector dominated Border Inspection Operations Commission to assess the operations of the border inspection system and to make recommendations for streamlining and modernizing the system.
· As recommended by the Southwest Border Transportation Alliance and, in consultation with appropriate Mexican, Canadian, and state officials, the Department of Transportation (DOT) should explore with the General Services Administration the initiation of a design and development of a model Border Crossing Demonstration Facility that would use new technology in its design and operation.
· The Secretary of the DOT and the Secretary of Commerce should explore the creation of a Trinational Working Group comprised of  public and private agencies to harmonize documentation and regulatory procedures. The designated National Law Centers for Inter-American Free Trade in each country could be used to staff this Working Group. The group should consult with organizations such as the Foreign Trade Data Users Group (FTDU), the National Council on International Trade Documentation (NCITD), and the
Transportation Data Coordinating Committee of the Electronic Data Interchange Association (TDCC/EDIA).
· The Secretary of DOT should initiate a study of the trade-related transportation planning information requirements of transportation planners in all three countries and how those needs can be met. 
The study should be conducted under the direction of a consortium of shippers, customs brokers and freight forwarders, transportation carriers, and federal and state transportation
officials.
· DOT should explore with its counterparts in Mexico and Canada and with leadership groups in the border region means by which border transportation coalitions could be formed along each border.
· The Secretary of DOT should convene an annual Gateways Forum to address, on a continuing basis, problems and opportunities in the continental border areas.
· The Secretary of DOT should explore the feasibility of a Congressional authorized and funded Border Gateway Regional Development Program. The purpose of such a program would be to provide federal assistance, most likely on a competitive basis, for regional development planning and non-construction planning implementation in Border Gateway regions.
· Congress should require DOT and the General Services Administration (GSA) to develop a joint Border Infrastructure Improvement Program Plan.
· The Secretary of DOT should request of Congress a revision of the legislative requirement for periodic assessments of the nation's highways, bridges, and transit systems to include similar detailed information relative to the railways, intermodal facilities, inland waterways and seaports, and an assessment of transportation infrastructure in Border Areas.
· A national strategy should be developed to encourage private sector investment in Mexico's transportation and telecommunication infrastructure.

Burke, Dock, and others. Transportation Aspects of the Maquiladora Industry Located on the Texas/Mexico Border. Final, prepared by Texas A&M University System, Texas Transportation Institute, sponsored by Texas Department of Transportation, Transportation Planning Division. College Station, Tex.: TTI, December 1992. Research Report 2034-2F. TTI:2-10-90/2034. various pagings.
CT Dist11 MAQUILADORAS 005
CT HDQ O13-3 (alwf)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 T73 1992
ABSTRACT: "This report documents the study findings on truck traffic generated from the maquila industries along the Texas-Mexico border. The report also explains the benefits of the maquilas, to both the United States and Mexico. The transportation needs of Texas are defined, promoting the vital economic health of the Texas-Mexico border region."
FINDINGS: "Transportation is only one significant aspect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Properly implemented, increased trade promotes the best interests of the country. As NAFTA promotes expanded trade, the differential effects (both positive and negative) upon the Texas economy and infrastructure must be closely monitored and analyzed to properly assess the expected effects of NAFTA."
RECOMMENDATIONS: None identified.

California Department of Transportation. California Transportation Plan. n.p.: Caltrans, December 1993. 35 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 X305 008 1993
CT HDQ N1-134 1993 Final
ABSTRACT: This plan was developed to satisfy the requirements of federal and state law. It includes a review of California, its transportation system, major policies, objectives for its future transportation system, and recommendations for state initiatives. It provides direction for planning, developing, opera-ting, and maintaining the State's transportation system.
FINDINGS: The major transportation challenge over the next 20 years is developing "a transportation system which complements and encourages a positive economy and a quality environment." The projected continued population growth, changes in land use and
environmental concerns and means of funding combine to cloud the future of transportation in the State. The plan recognizes that "international trade will become increasingly more important.""

RECOMMENDATIONS: Three specific proposals to improve the State's transportation system are presented:
· Convene a Special Commission to address the long-term need to revise the State's transportation financing structure.
· Develop a comprehensive statewide strategy for improving the movement of goods.
· Determine and fully authorize the State's role in non-highway modes of transportation.

California Department of Transportation. California-Mexico International Border Transportation Series, Draft. n.p.: Caltrans, n.d. 6 volumes.
CT Dist11 Border Studies Branch
ABSTRACT: This series of six reports serves as an update on the status of transportation facilities, services, and issues since the report, Transportation Issues along the California-Mexico International Border was released in 1993. The six reports in the series are titled and abstracted as follows:
· Regional Setting: includes an overall introduction and a discussion of the major features of the urbanized areas of the California-Baja California border
· Highways: discusses highway transportation facilities for each of the urban areas tied to the border crossings along the California- Baja California international border and the city and port of Ensenada. It also includes identified major border-wide issues, identifies certain funding needs, traffic projections, status of route development within California, and discusses aspects of the Mexican Federal highways in the border area.
· Land Ports of Entry: includes a general discussion of the port of entry (POE) system along the border as well as a description of each individual POE. It also discusses issues related to the POEs and recommendations addressing the issues.
· Air Transportation: describes current facilities, future plans for the two major airports (Lindbergh Field in San Diego and Rodriguez Field in Tijuana), trends in air travel, and some of the issues related to air travel.
· Seaports: covers the seven seaports that directly contribute to goods movement throughout the subject border region. These ports are Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego in California and Ensenada, Rosarito, El Sauzal, and Cedros Island in Baja California. Discussions include port descriptions, activities, capacities, and recreational, commercial, and industrial uses.
· Rail and Transit: describes existing and proposed rail and transit services on both sides of the California-Baja California border, including regional rail, light rail, rural bus, urban bus, intercity bus, and commuter and intercity rail.
FINDINGS: There are numerous findings included in the six reports, but factual data dominates.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Some recommendations are found, but their treatment is uneven. The reports should be used mostly for base information for the various topics.

California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and Baja California Secretar’a de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Pœblicas (SAHOPE). SAHOPE-Caltrans Joint Report on the Transportation Planning and Infrastructure Improvement Needs on the California-Baja California Border = Reporte Conjunto SAHOPE-Caltrans Sobre las Necesidades de Planeacion y Mejoramiento de la Infraestructura del Transporte en
la Frontera de California y Baja California,
presented at the XVII Meeting of the U.S.-Mexico Binational Committee on Bridges and Border Crossings = XVII Reunion del Comite Binacional Mexico- Estados Unidos Sobre Puentes y Cruces Fronterizos, held at Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico., May 23 1995. n.p.: Caltrans, May 1995. 55 pp. and maps. (in English and Spanish).
CT Dist11 BAJA CALIFORNIA 001 XVII
ABSTRACT: This report covers a joint presentation as cited dealing with the transportation needs identified by both agencies in the California/ Baja California area. It includes ports of entry, highway, and railroad issues.
FINDINGS: "In order to improve the International border crossings and provide the supporting needed transportation facilities leading to the various Ports of Entry, close coordination and collaboration must occur between the local, state, and federal agencies. This is vital to facilitate the current levels of trade and foster an even greater growth in the
trade relations between our two nations. The mechanism to provide such close coordination and implement the needed transportation infrastructure improvement projects calls for the attention of this committee [the Binational Committee on Bridges and Border
Crossings] as well as from the various federal agencies. An active willingness on the part of the Federal agencies to accept their fair responsibility to the State and local communities in the implementation of Federal projects and to act upon that responsibility is indispensable to a close and fruitful relationship that would benefit local, state, and national interests. Caltrans and SAHOPE, along with many of the local and metropolitan planning and transportation agencies, are eager to begin a new period of cooperation and collaboration with the Federal agencies. There are too few resources and these need to be maximized through a closer and more streamlined process."
RECOMMENDATIONS: A process leading to better coordination between federal, state, and local agencies is needed so that appropriate action regarding the much needed border transportation projects can be forthcoming.

California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and Baja California Secretar’a de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Pœblicas (SAHOPE). SAHOPE-Caltrans Joint Report on the Transportation Planning and Infrastructure Improvement Needs on the California-Baja California Border = Reporte Conjunto SAHOPE-Caltrans Sobre las Necesidades de Planeacion y Mejoramiento de la Infraestructura del Transporte en
la Frontera de California y Baja California,
presented at the XVIII Meeting of the U.S.-Mexico Binational Committee on Bridges and Border Crossings = XVIII Reunion del Comite Binacional Mexico-Estados Unidos Sobre Puentes y Cruces Fronterizos, held at South Padre Island, Texas, U.S.A., September 20, 1995. n.p.: Caltrans, September 1995. 63 pp. and photos and maps. (in English and Spanish).
CT Dist11 BAJA CALIFORNIA 001 XVIII
ABSTRACT: This report is similar to the previously cited Caltrans/SAHOPE reports. It provides updated information on California/Baja California border area transportation projects as well as documents the past history of Caltrans and SAHOPE cooperation.
FINDINGS: The findings are a repeat of those given for the report of the XVII meeting.
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Recommendations for the XVII meeting. 

California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and Baja California Secretar’a de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Pœblicas (SAHOPE). SAHOPE-Caltrans Joint Report on the Transportation Planning and Infrastructure Improvement Needs on the California-Baja California Border = Reporte Conjunto SAHOPE-Caltrans Sobre las Necesidades de Planeacion y Mejoramiento de la Infraestructura del Transporte en
la Frontera de California y Baja California,
presented at the XIX Meeting of the U.S.-Mexico Binational Committee on Bridges and Border Crossings = XIX Reunion del Comite Binacional Mexico- Estados Unidos Sobre Puentes y Cruces Fronterizos, held at
Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, March 5, 1996. n.p.: Caltrans, March 1996. 73 pp. and photos and maps. (in English and Spanish).
CT Dist11 BAJA CALIFORNIA 001 XIX
ABSTRACT: This report is similar to the previously cited Caltrans/SAHOPE reports. It provides updated information on California/Baja California border area transportation projects. The Mexicali Port of Entry now under construction at the Route 7 border crossing is given special emphasis in this report.
FINDINGS: See previous entry for the XVII meeting.
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Recommendations for the XVII meeting.

California Department of Transportation Binational Border Transportation Study Committee, Regulatory Subcommittee. The North American Free Trade Agreement Testimony. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: Caltrans, June 11, 1993. 27 pp.
CT Dist11 LAWS AND REGULATIONS 003
ABSTRACT: This testimony was presented to a federal hearing on the assessment of border crossings and transportation corridors for North America held in San Diego on June 11, 1993. A regulatory background from the State's perspective is given.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The testimony makes 19 recommendations concerning registration/licensing of vehicles involved in binational (U.S.-Mexico and U.S.-Canada) trade, operations, and port-of-entry issues. See report for details.

California Department of Transportation, District 11. Calexico/Coachella Valley/Los Angeles Rail Corridor Study. Final Draft, prepared for the California Transportation Commission. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: Caltrans, January 1995. various pagings.
CT Dist11 RAIL TRANSPORTATION 012
ABSTRACT: This Caltrans in-house study of possible rail passenger service between Los Angeles and the U.S.-Mexico border at Calexico considers ridership projections done for two earlier studies to obtain consensus data. The 90-day study also provides information on the origin, destination, volume, and type of freight crossing the U.S.-Mexico border at the Calexico-Mexicali gateway, development of an intermodal transfer station at the gateway, and cross-border customs procedures. Other topics addressed include a discussion of the potential for and impediments to through rail passenger service across the
international border and an analysis of leasing rail equipment vs. purchasing. Lastly, the study includes specific recommendations concerning rail freight and passenger policy in the Mexicali-Calexico/ Coachella Valley/Los Angeles rail corridor.
FINDINGS: See Recommendations.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Many recommendations are offered. Among the key ones are that:
· San Diego Association of Governments and Southern California Association of Governments coordinate studies regarding the San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway.
· The California Transportation Commission pursue with the California Legislature the possibility of establishing a sinking fund for rail passenger rolling stock.
· Under certain conditions, rail passenger service in the Los Angeles/Coachella Valley corridor be pursued.
· Caltrans monitor Mexican rail privatization efforts. · Caltrans foster coordination for a land-use plan that accommodates a future rail intermodal facility near the border.
· Caltrans urge expedited freight inspection procedures at the Calexico-Mexicali border, including Despacho Previo, Pre-filed, Pre-Billed, or Line Release procedures.

California Department of Transportation, District 11. California/Mexico Border Air Quality Study. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: Caltrans, [December 1993]. 11 pp.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 017
ABSTRACT: This report covers an air quality study at the San Ysidro Port of Entry in California. The study was performed by Caltrans at the request of the Federal Highway Administration.
FINDINGS: Air quality non-attainment was not found in this limited study, but there is a need to address mitigation of carbon monoxide and other pollutants. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: This quick study indicates that future air quality studies should be done to quantify the effect of traffic queues on the air quality at the border.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, Advance Planning. State Route 94 Corridor Study. Phase I: SR-94 from Avocado Blvd. to SR- 188. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, March 1997. 21 pp. and maps.
CT Dist11 HIGHWAYS 014
ABSTRACT: This Phase I study identifies the minimum safety and operational improvements needed to keep the route functioning at an acceptable level of service for the near term. Phase II of the corridor study will consider the long-term needs for the route (5-30 years) and will include such possibilities as rail service between Ensenada and Tecate and the need for added POEs. The study was prompted by California Senate Resolution 34 passed March 28, 1996, which called for Caltrans to conduct a "broad planning and engineering study to identify long-term strategies to address NAFTA-related increases in commercial truck traffic on SR-94 and SR-188 between the east junction of SR-54 in San Diego and I- 8 near Boulevard."
FINDINGS: Nine proposed projects totaling an estimated $16.2 million cost are identified.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Since SR-94 has significant segments currently operating LOS "E" or "F"and the LOS is expected to continue to degrade with increased commercial traffic, proposed operational improvement projects are needed immediately to keep SR-94
functioning adequately. Therefore, it is recommended:
· That funding be secured as soon as possible for the nine proposed projects from the State Highway Operation & Protection Program (SHOPP) for a total cost of $16,200,000;
· A Project Study Report (PSR), or equivalent, to be completed by July 1997 for each of the nine locations;
· That the District be allocated a greater share of the statewide SHOPP funds for these projects so other needed District SHOPP projects are not delayed;
· That Caltrans continue to work with local developers and the County of San Diego to insure that projects in the corridor, paid for as "fair-share" mitigation or sales tax, are implemented when needed; 
· That the Phase II study should start immediately with resultant projects available for programming in the Year 2000 STIP or from other funding sources.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. District 11 1996 System Management Plan. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, June 1996. 76 pp.
CT Dist11 X912-001(a)-1991
ABSTRACT: This report focuses on the District 11 intermodal transportation system in terms of its reach and functionality. It provides a description of the areas included in the District and Caltrans regional partnerships and discusses the six system management plan
components (highway, transit, nonmotorized, aviation, goods movement, and international border ) in terms of existing conditions and system development strategies.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Route Concept Report: Interstate 8, 11-SD-8, P.M. 0.0-R77.8, 11-IMP-8, P.M. 0.0-R97.0, July 1990. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, July 1990. 21 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 007
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers Interstate Route 8 in San Diego and Imperial Counties. 
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Route Concept Report: Interstate 805, 11-SD-805, P.M. 0.5- 28.5, July 1991. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, July 1991. 28 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 002
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers Interstate Route 805 in San Diego County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Route Concept Report: State Route 94, SR-94, 11-SD-94, P.M. 1.4-65.4, January 1991. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, January 1991. 19 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 003
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers Interstate Route 94 in San Diego County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, Transportation Planning. Route Concept Report: State Route 186, 11-IMP-186, P.M. 0.0-2.1, April 1985. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, April 1985. 4 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 006
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report was done in 1985 and covers State Route 186 in Imperial County. The study is due for updating.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Route Concept Report: State Route 111, 11-IMP-111, P.M. R0.0-65.4, 11-RIV-111, P.M. 0.0-37.9, September 1991. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, September 1991. 37 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 009 
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers State Route 111 in Imperial and Riverside Counties.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: Interstate 5, 11-SD-5, P.M. R0-R72.4, April 1997. San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, April 1997. 36 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 001
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers Interstate Route 5 in San Diego County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 11, 11-SD-11, P.M. 0.0-2.7, August 1997. Draft. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, August 1997. 21 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 011
ABSTRACT: Route concept reports cover existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers unconstructed Route 11 in San Diego City and County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented. The data indicate that if the route were constructed as a four-lane freeway, it would carry an average daily traffic load of 36,000 at level of service C by the year 2020.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and expected traffic growth between the U.S. and Mexico, needs are identified. 

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 98, 11-IMP-98, P.M. R0.3-R56.9, December 1994. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, December 1994. 21 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 008
ABSTRACT: Transportation concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future multimodal traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers State Route 98 in
Imperial County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 188, 11-SD-188, P.M. 0.0-1.9, January 1992. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, January 1992. 13 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 005
ABSTRACT: Transportation concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future multimodal traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers State Route 188 in
San Diego County.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 125, 11-SD-125, P.M. S.D. L0.0-30.4, April 1992. Draft. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, April 1992. 14 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 004
ABSTRACT: Transportation concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future multimodal traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers State Route 125 in San Diego County. The southern end of this route (P.M. 0.0 to P.M.9.2) is presently unconstructed and is proposed for a toll facility.
FINDINGS: A considerable amount of data is presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given, but based on concepts presented and future expected traffic growth, needs are identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 905, 11-SD-905, P.M. S.D. 0.0-12.0, September 1994. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, September 1994. 26 pp.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 010
ABSTRACT: The report gives a history of this state highway route, its description, purpose within the state highway system, a description of existing features, and a transportation concept for future development (based on the year 2015). The route analysis includes population and employment forecasts and need for improved highway service to the Otay Mesa area of San Diego.
FINDINGS: The report includes needed route development information for the year 2015 and the ultimate transportation corridor.
RECOMMENDATIONS: This is a basic planning document for this state highway route and, as such, it identifies needed future capacity improvements, but makes no specific recommendations for realizing the improvements identified.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, System Planning Branch. Transportation Concept Report: State Route 7, 11-IMP-7, P.M. 0.0-6.7, December 1994. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, December 1994. 19 p.
CT Dist11 ROUTE/TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT REPORTS 010
ABSTRACT: Transportation concept reports cover the existing status of the route, the improvements needed to accommodate future multimodal traffic based on the concept level of service and the ultimate transportation corridor. This report covers proposed State Route 7 in San Diego County.
FINDINGS: The first portion of this route was recently constructed (from the border to Route 98). Several alternatives for the remainder of the route are under consideration. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: None explicitly given. Note: as the result of recent State legislation, this route may become a public toll road.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, Transportation Planning Branch. Transportation Issues Along the California/Mexico International Border. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, September 1993. various pagings.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 006
CT HDQ O13-1 vol. (amhy)
ABSTRACT: Includes discussions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), regional setting (San Diego and Imperial Counties, Tijuana, Mexicali, Tecate, and Ensenada), traffic and trade flow, highways in San Diego and Imperial Counties, ports of entry (San Ysidro, Otay Mesa, Tecate, Calexico, New Calexico-East, Andrade), rail transportation (freight and rail passenger services), air transportation (Lindbergh Field, Abelardo L. Rodriguez Airport, Otay Mesa-TwinPorts concept, Imperial Valley Regional Airport feasibility study), seaports (Southern California seaports and seaports of Baja California and Baja California Sur), privatization (Mexico, California, binational transportation toll corridor), and conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include acronyms, ISTEA Sections 1089 and 6015, and a listing of major studies. This report documents ongoing transportation planning activities in the California-Mexico border region. It also provides an overview of
transportation concerns and issues that impact existing and proposed transportation facilities in the subject area. The document also serves as a reference database.
FINDINGS: Programmed (near-term) projects to the year 2000 are identified along with estimated costs and expected construction year. Also presented are near-term (1994-2000), mid-term (2000-2005), and long-term (2005 and beyond) non-programmed projects with estimated project costs.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Numerous recommendations and conclusions are given. See report for details.

California Department of Transportation, District 11, Transportation Planning Branch. Transportation Issues Along the California/Mexico International Border. Executive Summary. 
San Diego, Calif.: Caltrans, September 1993. 39 pp. 
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 005
UCB Trans HE213.C2 T73 1993
ABSTRACT: This report has been prepared by Caltrans District 11 in an effort to document its ongoing transportation planning activities in the California-Mexico border region. This report provides an overview of transportation concerns and issues that impact existing and proposed transportation facilities in the region. The document will further serve
as a reference for subsequent responses to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and other proposed legislation that specifically addresses ports of entry (POEs) and the infrastructure that serves them.
FINDINGS:
· Economic growth in the California-Mexico border region has steadily increased since Mexico's entrance into the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade in 1986. However, there has been a lack of comprehensive and coordinated planning for the future growth of the entire border region. 
· Caltrans plays a crucial role in the coordination of planning in the border region.
· Caltrans' short-term efforts will be focused towards participation in the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) studies required in Section 6015 and Section 1089 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA).
· Programmed (near-term) projects to the year 2000 are identified along with estimated costs and expected construction year. Also presented are near-term (1994-2000), mid-term (2000-2005), and long-term (2005 and beyond) non-programmed projects with
estimated project costs.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Numerous recommendations and conclusions are given. See report for details.

California Legislature, Assembly, Committee on Utilities and Commerce. North American Free Trade Agreement: Impact on California.
Sacramento, Calif.: Assembly Publications Office, March 22, 1993. ii, 118 pp.
CT HDQ 013-15 (aphn)
UCB IGS 93 01048
UCB Law Lib KF6665.C34 1993
UCB Main HF1746.C35 1993
UCD Law Lib KFC10.4.U75 1993n Stacks
UCD Shields DOC-CA L500 .U85 1993 no.3 Govt Docs Stacks 
UCLA Law Lib HF1746.C35 1993
UCLA URL HF1746.C35 1993
UCR Rivera L500.U85 1993 no.3 Govt. Pub Calif
UCSB Main Lib L500.U85 1993 no.3 Govt Pub
UCSD SSH L500.U85 1993 no.3 Documents California
CSL Main Lib L500.U85 1993 no.3 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This report is a record of a one-day hearing held by the Chair of the California Assembly Committee on Utilities and Commerce on March 22, 1993 at Sacramento, California. It provides brief succinct information on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), including NAFTA's history, major provisions, and, through the various testimonies, informed opinions of the anticipated impacts of the agreement.
Submissions and correspondence included are from: Office of the Governor of California; California Department of Food and Agriculture; California Labor Federation; California Trucking Association; School of Public Health of University of California, Los Angeles; Californians for NAFTA; Ambassador Mickey Kantor; Latino Educator's Committee on Free Trade.
FINDINGS: No specific findings identified, but numerous examples of impact presented.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None given.

California Transportation Commission, California Department of Transportation, and California Association of Port Authorities. Improving Access to California's Ports, prepared in response to Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 96 (Garamendi). n.p.: CTC, February 1990. 28 pp.
CT Dist11 SEAPORTS 008
HAST 5th Stks HE554.A6 C2
UCB Trans HE554.A6 C2 1990
UCD Shields HE554.A6 C32 1990
UCR Rivera T380 .P67 Govt.Pub Calif
UCSB Main Lib T380 .P67 Govt Pub
SRLF D 0007423759 Type EXP SRLF For loan details.
CSL Main Lib T380 .P67 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: Provides information on the economic impact of the California public port industry, basic congestion problems in California, special port access problems and the California Port Access Plan, California transportation and the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), funding the proposal, and STIP relationship. Appendices include access improvements as identified by individual ports and Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 96 (Garamendi).
FINDINGS: To improve port access, key actions need to be taken: coordinate port planning, broaden funding opportunities, and apply transportation management techniques.
RECOMMENDATIONS: No specific recommendations given.

Cambridge, J., and J. Leeper. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 4: Profiles of Western U.S.-Canada Border Crossings. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1994]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB94-192218
ABSTRACT: Report contains detailed profiles of the 53 border crossings between the Western U.S. and Canada.
FINDINGS: None.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Refer to the preface for specific recommendations for improvement for each border crossing.

Canada, United Mexican States, and United States of America. North American Free Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America, the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States. Cover title: The NAFTA.
Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1993. 2 vol.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 023
CT HDQ F2-8 1992 (ajae, anrx)
HAST 5th Stks No call number
UCB Law Lib KF6668 .N62 1992
UCB Main KDZ944.A41992 A2 1992 v.1- [5] ([1992])
UCD Law Lib KDZ945.A41992 A53 1992 Stacks
UCD Shields KDZ944.A41992 A2 1992 Govt Docs Ref Library has v.1-5
UCI Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/V.1-5 Gov Pub U.S.
UCSB Main Lib PREX 1.2: T 67/V.1-5 Govt Pub
UCSC McHenry PREX 1.2:T 67/V.1-5 Gov Pubs
US Docs Library has: v.1-5 Gov Pubs US Doc
UCSD IR/PS K4603.A4 N82 1992 Check local catalog for specific location
UCSD IR/PS K4603.A4 N82 1992 Reference
UCSD SSH PrEx 1.2:T 67 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/V.1-5 Govt Pubs
HAST Reserve K4602.2 N67 1993
UCB GovSocSci KDZ944.A4 1992 A2 1993 v.1-[6] (1993)
UCB Law Lib KF6668.N62 1992 A42
UCD Shields DOC PREX 1.2:T 67/993-2/ Govt Docs Stacks Library has v.1-5
UCLA Map/Govt KDZ 944 A41992 A2 1993 Reference Area Library has v.1-5
UCSD SSH PrEx 1.2:T 67/993-2 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/V.1-5/993-2 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This is the NAFTA document in two volumes, including seven Annexes.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Carter, Colin, and Harold O. Carter, eds. North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for California Agriculture: Proceedings of a Conference on March 5, 1992 in Los Angeles, California. 
Davis, Calif.: Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, Davis, 1992. v, 240 pp.
UCB IGS 93 00485
UCD AgriEcon HD1775.C3 N67 1992 Library use only 
UCD Shields HD1775.C3 N67 1992
UCR Rivera HD1775.C3 N67 1992
UCSD IR/PS HD1775.C3 N67 1992
CSL Capitol HD1775.C2 N86 1992 CRB
ABSTRACT: This conference looked at the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on specific California agricultural commodities. It also addressed the aggregate macroeconomic effects on the California economy and on agriculture within the state. In addition, it looked at issues such as the movement of labor and capital investment on each side of border as related to the free trade agreement.
FINDINGS:
· With or without NAFTA, increasing integration of the economy between the U.S. and Mexico is inevitable. The growth in integration will lead to growth in the manufacturing and
agriculture sectors.
· With the passage of NAFTA, the migration of Mexican farmers will increase in the short term, but will likely decrease in the long term as NAFTA opens up larger markets for agricultural growth in Mexico, which, in time, will require a greater labor supply and
reduce Mexican farmers' migration to the U.S.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

Center for the New West. U.S.-Mexico Transportation Policy: A Trade Perspective: Speeches & Congressional Roundtable, San Antonio, Texas, April 6-7, 1993. A Southwest Regional Conference. n.p.: Center, 1993. various pagings.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 020
UCSD IR/PS HE210.5 .S67 1993
ABSTRACT: Includes the speeches presented and the text of the roundtable conducted at the Southwest Regional Conference on U.S.- Mexico Transportation Policy: A Trade Perspective, convened by the Center for the New West in San Antonio on April 6-7, 1993. The following speeches are reprinted: "A Third Way: The Clinton Administration and NAFTA" by Ira Shapiro, General Counsel to the U.S. Trade Representative; "The Federal Highway Administration & NAFTA" by Wesley Mendenhall, Regional Federal Highway
Administrator for Region VI; "Forget the Alamo" by Henry R. Munoz III, Texas Transportation Commissioner; "Jobs, Growth and Competitiveness in North America: The Promise of the North American Free Trade Agreement" by Philip M. Burgess, Center for the New West; and "Mexico's Past & Future Transportation Plan" by Ing. Jaime Luna Traill, Coordinator General de Planeacion, Secretar’a de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Also included is an agenda of the conference and a list of participants.
FINDINGS: A great deal of information is presented. Of particular interest is the data given in the presentation by Ing. Jaime Luna Traill on "Mexico's Past & Future Transportation Plan."
RECOMMENDATIONS: No consensus recommendations are presented.

Chavez-Marquez, Manuel. "The State, Elites and Urban Development: The Political Economy of the U.S.-Mexican Border." Dissertation, 1993. viii, 274 leaves.
UCSD SSH F787.C529 1993a
ABSTRACT: This doctoral dissertation addresses the changing social processes occurring in the northern portion of Mexico and the impacts on two specific urban areas: Tijuana and Ciudad, Juarez.
FINDINGS: Local and state officials are limited and frustrated by control and centralization policies of the Mexican federal government.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

City of San Diego. Tia Juana River Valley Plan. Cover title: . . . and Local Coastal Program Addendum. 
San Diego, Calif.: City, March 1977 (Reprint June 1981). 143 pp.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 010
UCSD SSH C400 P71 T551/2 Documents San Diego
SRLF D 0006153043 Type EXP SRLF for loan details
ABSTRACT: This report discusses the background and direction of the study, the study area, the environmental setting of the Tia Juana River Valley, the scope and purpose of the plan, planning goals, alternative plan analysis, plan elements of the Tia Juana River Valley Plan (park and estuary, agriculture preserve, flood control, the I-5 corridor, Border Highlands, public facilities, and circulation), a plan map, and proposed implementation.
FINDINGS: A valley conservation plan with peripheral urbanization best serves the area. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: None. The proposed plan was adopted September 30, 1976 (Resolution #541).

Clark, Jerry, and others. Intermodal Goods Movement Conference: Summary of Proceedings, June 8-10, 1992, Radisson Hotel, Sacramento, California., prepared by California Department of Transportation, Division of Transportation Planning, Office of Goods Movement and Commerce. Sacramento, Calif.: Caltrans, October 1992.47 pp.
CT Dist11 INTERMODAL TRANSPORT. 001
ABSTRACT: Includes presentations on California's position regarding the subject in relation to the global economy, the maritime industry, intermodalism and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), unified transportation, port development, air cargo, trucking, intermodal goods movement, military standards, new technology in goods movement, the Crescent demonstration project, transportation policies in Mexico, and responsibilities for compliance and enforcement in goods movement. Workshops were on issues facing operators and providers, government and industry coordination, and partnerships to improve service and lower costs.
FINDINGS: Key issues identified included defining Caltrans role in providing leadership in improving goods movement constraints, improving access to both rural and urban intermodal facilities and to ports, and reducing government regulations.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Establish a goods movement advisory committee to work with Caltrans. Also Caltrans should improve their knowledge of the needs of the goods movement industry.

Clement, Norris C., and Eduardo Zepeda Miramontes, eds. San Diego-Tijuana in Transition: A Regional Analysis, a joint project of the San Diego State University Department of Economics and El Colegio de la Frontera Norte. San Diego, Calif.: SDSU, Institute for Regional Studies of the Californias, 1993. 130 pp.
CT Dist11 SAN DIEGO COUNTY 009
UCLA URL HC 108 S65 S28 1993
UCSB Main Lib HC108.S65 S28 1993 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSD IR/PS HT394.S23 S23 1993
UCSD SSH HT394.S23 S23 1993
NRLF X 51 116 Request item at UCB Bancroft Library. 
CSL Main Lib HC108.S65 S28 1993 California Non Circ
ABSTRACT: This document covers the impacts of immigration on the San Diego region in the following subject areas and gives recommendations in each area: education, law enforcement, community relations, criminal justice, health services, social services,
housing, employment, and the free trade agreement. Also includes background information and a glossary.
FINDINGS: There are strong impacts resulting from legal and illegal immigration to the region. These impacts strain the resources of the service providers.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are given in each of the nine subject areas (see abstract) as well as from a regional perspective.

Clement, Norris C., and James Gerber. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Its Impact on California. [San Diego, Calif.]: Dept. of Economics, San Diego State University, [1991]. 38 leaves.
UCSD IR/PS HF1746.C5735 1991
ABSTRACT: This paper addresses three questions. First, what are the historic and economic conditions behind the attempt to form a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) at this time in history? Second, what are the main issues being debated in the three countries vis-ˆ-vis the NAFTA? And finally, how might the NAFTA impact the California economy?
FINDINGS:
In the long run, the most significant impact on the U.S. side from NAFTA will be from the rise in Mexican incomes and the expansion of their market. In the short to medium run, however, there will be some dislocation.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The State of California should not only make efforts to ascertain the likely effects of a NAFTA and what can be done to benefit from increasing North America integration, but also devise strategies for the long run to improve the State's overall international competitiveness.

Conference on North American Trade and Transportation, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C., January 13-14, 1994. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, October 1994. Searching for Solutions: A Policy Discussion Series, no. 13. 61 pp.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-GENERAL 006a
ABSTRACT: This report covers a conference held January 13-14, 1994 in Washington, D.C. covering the results of the Federal Highway 

Administration report Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade. The conference was also a forum for various U.S. Department of Transportation administrations and other federal agencies to discuss implications of the study results.
FINDINGS: This was an opportunity for various stakeholders to comment on the report (see report) and no specific findings resulted.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Four areas for future actions to accommodate transportation improvements were recommended: 1) private sector involvement, 2) infrastructure needs identification, 3) institutional arrangements, and 4) planning and data collection improvements.

Cordoba Corporation and others. The NAFTA Transportation Impacts in SCAG Region Study. Final Report submitted to Southern California Association Governments. n.p.: Cordoba, July 5, 1996.
CT Dist11 IMPACTS OF NAFTA-CALIFORNIA 007
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to conduct an intensive analysis of the impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the transportation infrastructure in the six-county area covered by the sponsor. (SCAG represents the Counties of Ventura, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Riverside, Orange, and Imperial.) The
study is an assessment of current economic, financial, political, and other conditions surrounding NAFTA. Methods to facilitate freight traffic and rail transportation in the SCAG region were given special attention. Imperial County has been given special emphasis because of its importance as a border county gateway for goods and people
between California and Mexico where information from San Diego County that is integral to the analysis has been included. Through an extensive selection process, thirty consolidated technical and strategic issues were identified. These were then reduced
to a final list of ten core issues as follows:
1. Necessary highway improvements to accommodate trade growth.
2. Access to/from through ports of entry and linkages to key corridors.
3. Access and circulation at seaports and airports.
4. Port infrastructure improvements at Long Beach and Los Angeles ports to support increased trade.
5. AirportsÑlinkages to regional goods network.
6. Alameda Truck Corridor and key highway linkages. 
7. Truck traffic congestion on key corridors.
8. Traffic bottlenecks caused by goods movements capacity constraints.
9. Optimization, balancing of seaport, rail, truck goods movement.
10. Planning and funding for infrastructure needs.
FINDINGS: SCAG has three options for developing strategies related to NAFTA and goods movement. They cover SCAG as 1) an innovator, 2) an initiator, and 3) an implementing agency.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
Capitol Strategic Elements
· Designate an Intermodal Goods Movement Network (IGN). 
· Develop Goods Movement Action Plans (GMAPs) to address the core issues.
· Develop specific capital improvements to include in the GMAPs. 
Operating Strategic Elements
· Traffic signal synchronization and control. 
· Transportation System Management (TSM)
· Alternative use of existing facilities. 
· Parking management.
· Special truck routes. 
· Transportation facility coordination and management.
Technology Strategy Elements
· Border-crossing facilities. 
· Goods information.
· Goods movement control systems. 
Policy Related Strategy Elements
· Policy planning 
· Establish a Southwest Passage corridor.
· Create new policy bodies. 
· Promote legislation as needed to implement the elements.

Cordoba Corporation. The Southwest Passage. The Southwest Passage Strategic Action Plan. Draft Final Report, prepared for the Southern California Association of Governments. n.p.: Cordoba, July 1997. 32 pp.
CT Dist11 GOODS MOVEMENT 008
ABSTRACT: This report is the culmination of a study to develop input for a Southwest Passage strategy. "The Southwest Passage is a multi-modal goods movement corridor along the U.S./Mexican border stretching from the California coast to the Texas Gulf coast." It also includes key connections to U.S.-Mexico ports of entry and the interior U.S.
FINDINGS: The developed strategic plan has three purposes:
1. Describe key elements, requirements, and benefits of the proposed plan.
2. Identify ways to position the passage in relation to stakeholders to gain support, and momentum and minimize opposition.
3. Recommends next steps and actions that SCAG and others should take towards implementation.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The following steps should be taken to move the proposal forward:
1. Get Acceptance and Adoption of the Definition of the Southwest Passage.
2. Incorporation of the Southwest Passage into the RTPs [regional transportation plans] and RTIPs [regional transportation improvement programs] of the affected MPOs [metropolitan transportation organization].
3. Incorporation of the Southwest Passage into the STPs [state transportation plans] and STIPs [state transportation improvement programs] of the affected States.
4. Obtain Limited Congressional Funding for the Southwest Passage in Fiscal 1998.
5. Establish the Southwest Passage Institutional and Organizational Machinery to Move the Project Forward and to Implement the Systems Planning Effort.

County of San Diego, Department of Transborder Affairs. Cross Border Concerns in the San Diego Region. Issue: The Need for New Border Crossings. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: the County, January 1992. 39 pp.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-CALIFORNIA 001
ABSTRACT: Covers existing facilities, present needs, plans for new facilities, constraints to expansion, drug interdiction, Mexican perspective, efficient flow of commerce, recommendations and improving decision-making process. Also includes appendices on the "Regio" (France, Germany, Switzerland), "Los Alamos" (California), and Santa Teresa (New Mexico).
FINDINGS: Inadequate staffing of facilities was found to be a major impediment to congestion relief. In the long run added facilities will be needed. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: Seventeen recommendations are presented, including:
· Encourage more high occupancy vehicle lanes. 
· Convert Virginia Street to a noncommercial auto crossing.
· Construct new port of entry for long-term needs, possibly east of Otay Mesa crossing.

Demographic Atlas San Diego/Tijuana = Atlas Demografico [San Diego/ Tijuana], a project of the San Diego/Tijuana Planning for Prosperity Fund; a report in the Economic Research Series of San Diego Dialogue at . . . 
[La Jolla, Calif.: University of California, San Diego], c1995. viii, 101 pp.
UCB Map Room HA218 .D45 1995
UCSD IR/PS HA218 .D45 1995 Reference
UCSD SpecColl HA218 .D45 1995 Baja
UCSD SSH HA218 .D45 1995 Reference Desk
ABSTRACT: This atlas presents key demographic data for the San Diego/Tijuana area based on 1990 U.S. and Mexican censuses. Thirty-two maps, 89 charts, and 33 tables are presented. The atlas also contains a comparative view of the San Diego/Tijuana area in relation to the entire U.S.-Mexico border, looking at all 25 U.S. border counties and 39 Mexican municipios.
FINDINGS: The San Diego/Tijuana corridor is a binational region composed of the urban place of Tijuana and the urban area of San Diego County. As such it had a 1990 population of over 3 million, making it, by far, the major U.S.-Mexico border population
aggregation.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Demographic Atlas San Diego/Tijuana = San Diego/Tijuana Atlas Demografico, computer file. 
[La Jolla, Calif.]: University of California, San Diego, 1994-
UCSD No call number INTERNET http://infopath.ucsd.edu/data/campus/department/academic/extended_studies/
atlas.html.

Donnelly, R., and others. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Vol. 3: Transportation and Trade Expansion Between the U.S. and Mexico. Final Report, prepared by Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc., and others. Part of the TransNET West Project. n.p.: Federal Highway Administration, September 1993 (Reprinted December 1993). 178 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-GENERAL 009
UCB Trans PB95-122891 Microfiche
ABSTRACT: This report summarizes trade and traffic flows between the U.S. and Mexico in terms of origin and destination, commodity classification, and mode of transport. A forecast of trade growth is included, with a review of its implications for the transportation system. The status of border-crossing infrastructure is revised to include pipelines and airports. Planned improvements (funded or unfunded) are profiled. Intermodal facilities and institutions active in U.S.-Mexico trade and transportation are identified. The report concludes with an examination of future trends in the economy,
technology, and institutions that may affect the transportation system serving the border region.
FINDINGS: See report (difficult to summarize).
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Employment Development Department. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): An Analysis Prepared by the Employment Development Department. n.p.: EDD, September 15, 1992. various pagings.
CT Dist11 EMPLOYMENT 001
CT HDQ O13-4 (ambz)
ABSTRACT: Includes history and synopsis of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), effects on employment, the Employment Development Department's (EDD's) current capacity to assist, recommendations for EDD action, legislation related to NAFTA, proponents and opponents, and industry-specific effects of NAFTA.
FINDINGS: The EDD is in a good position to assist workers and employers affected by NAFTA.
RECOMMENDATIONS: EDD should identify and recommend program changes, new programs, and new linkages needed to respond to NAFTA effects.

Engfer, Victoria L., and others. By-Products of Prosperity: Transborder Hazardous Waste Issues Confronting the Maquiladora Industry, prepared by Gray, Cary, Ames & Frye. 
San Diego, Calif.: GCA&F,n.d. 54 pp.
CT Dist11 MAQUILADORAS 002
ABSTRACT: This report contains a brief discussion of the current status and significance of the maquiladora industry and procedures for the transborder shipment of hazardous waste. It also presents an analysis of anticipated regulatory and economic trends concerning hazardous materials.
FINDINGS: Present Mexican law generally provides that hazardous materials resulting from use of primary materials brought into Mexico under the temporary import system must be returned to the country of origin.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Environmental Science Associates, Inc. Calexico East Border Station and State Route 7 Between the New Port of Entry and State Route 98: Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report. 
Los Angeles, Calif. ESA, February 16, 1993. GSA Project Number: ICA18040. SCH Number: 92091034. 360 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 CALEXICO 002
ABSTRACT: This EIS/EIR provides description, purpose, and need for a new port of entry; alternatives considered; other proposals in the project area; the affected environment (overview, physical characteristics, land use/socioeconomics, cultural resources, utilities and services, and transportation and parking); environmental consequences and mitigation measures; impact overview; regulatory compliance/consistency with plans; California Department of Transportation Title VI policy statement; distribution list for the report; lists of participants, contacts, references, and back-up studies, and abbreviations; a glossary; and appendices.
FINDINGS: Environmental impacts and a preferred location are identified.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Fawcett, Stanley E., and David B. Vellenga. "Transportation Characteristics and Performance in Maquiladora Operations," in Transportation Journal, Summer 1992, pp. 5-15.
CT Dist11 MAQUILADORAS 003
ABSTRACT: Includes background on the maquiladora industry, its environmental regulation, consequences of noncompliance, and extensive footnotes.
FINDINGS: Transportation services are essential to the efficacy of production sharing because of the need for smooth reliable flow of materials.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Future research should focus on identifying impediments to reliable on-time delivery of materials.

Giermanski, Jim. The Impact of NAFTA on U.S.-Mexico Commercial and Border Zones and the Potential Consequences to the Border, prepared by Texas A&M International University, Institute for International Trade. 
Laredo, Tex.: Texas A&M International University, February 1994. 8 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-GENERAL 010
CT HDQ O13-10 (answ)
UCSD IR/PS HF3239.M49 G54 1994
ABSTRACT: This report considers the significant economic effects of international commercial truck operation on border communities and the barriers currently presented by the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission's commercial zones and the Mexican frontier zone. It covers planned commercial zone restriction dissolution for trucking.
FINDINGS: Impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas will be substantial.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Gomez Montero, Sergio. The Border: The Future of Postmodernity. 1st ed.
San Diego, Calif.: San Diego State University Press, 1994. Baja California Literature in Transition. ix, 174 pp.
UCB Bancroft XZ94.0564
UCB Moffitt PQ7291.M46 G6 1994
UCSB Main Lib PQ7291.M46 G6 1994 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSC McHenry PQ7291.M46 G6 1994
UCSD SSH PQ7291.M42 G66 1994
ABSTRACT: This book explores a wide range of cultural phenomena associated with the border: language, symbols, political culture, etc. The overall theme focuses on the theoretical and philosophical concepts of space and time and post modernity.
FINDINGS:
None applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable. 

Good Neighbor Environmental Board. Annual Report of the Good Neighbor Environmental Board, A Presidential and Congressional Advisory Committee on U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental and Infrastructure Issues. n.p.: GNEB, April 1997. 33 pp.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 026
ABSTRACT: This board, established by legislation, reports annually to the President and Congress on U.S.-Mexico border environmental and infrastructure issues. It is composed of a broad spectrum of individuals from business, nonprofit organizations, state and local governments from the four states on the U.S.-Mexico border and representation from eight U.S. departments and agencies. This second annual report covers their actions for 1996; the development of the 1997 implementation plan; and agreement on a draft set of environmental indicators to measure and quantify progress. The Environmental Protection Agency's Border XXI program is a major factor in their activities. The board has established its role as:
· Advising the U.S. Federal Government and Congress regarding environmental and infrastructure issues and needs.
· Promoting sustainable development for the border region by recommending balanced approaches to environmental, infrastructure, public health, and economic development issues.
· Promoting improved coordination of Federal programs and resources in the border region.
· Advocating for and representing U.S. residents of the border region.
· Encouraging the development, use, and dissemination of environmental technologies and financing mechanisms appropriate to the unique circumstances of the region.
FINDINGS: A number of findings are presented in the report under the general topics of:
· Border XXI development and implementation, 
· Management of Federal programs,
· Development of institutional arrangements, 
· Infrastructure development, and
· Meeting information needs. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations are found throughout the report. Among them are the need for development of a long-term land use plan along the border incorporating sustainability concerns and the need for more focus on transportation issues. Among the transportation issues, the addressing of the implications and requirements for
hazardous waste disposal in the border zone is specifically identified.

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Additional Issue Papers, prepared for the San Diego Association of Governments. 
Universal City, Calif.: HR&A, June 1995. various pagings
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008a 1995
ABSTRACT: This document contains four discussion papers with additional information and suggestions about binational coordination issues as contained in the summary report for this study. The four papers are:
· Discussion Paper #1: A Review of Alternative Financing Options for Completing State Route 905.
· Discussion Paper #2: Improving U.S. Inter-governmental Cooperation in the Planning of Cross-border Highway Projects.
· Discussion Paper #3: Merits of Institutional Options to Address Congestion Issues at San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Ports of Entry.
· Defining a Binational Transportation Planning Zone for the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Region (a review of planning zone concepts, it presents a discussion of preliminary principles to consider in selecting a binational highway and transportation planning zone for the subject region).
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Summary Report, prepared for the San Diego Association of Governments. 
Universal City, Calif.: HR&A, June 1995. 93 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008 1995
ABSTRACT: "The purpose of the study is to provide information and options for future actions that will help fulfill the goal of open trade between the U.S. and Mexico through coordinated binational planning and improvement of the border region highway system."
FINDINGS: "The study concludes that there are serious systemic obstacles to the ability of Mexico and the U.S. to effectively plan an integrated border transportation system...The study details specific options for meeting the challenges posed by the different processes
used by the two countries. These include the adaptation of existing institutions or the creation of new planning institutions with an explicit focus on border region transportation, identification of new sources of funding for highway planning and improvements on each side of the border, and approaches to resolving significant technical differences in the way the two countries plan highways."
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Findings.

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Technical Memorandum #1: Description of the U.S./California and Mexico/Baja California Highway Planning Procedures and Processes, prepared for the San Diego Association of Governments. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: HR&A, August 1994. 177 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008/#1
ABSTRACT: The memorandum describes the highway planning processes and procedures now being used in Baja California, California, and the other Mexican and U.S. states along the border. It contains 1) a summary of the team's principal conclusions to date, 2) an analysis of the highway planning process used in the U.S. and California, 3) an analysis of the highway planning process used in Baja California and Mexico, and 4) a summary of binational highway planning efforts in other U.S. and Mexican states along the border. It describes the roles of the various U.S. federal agencies, particularly the  Federal Highway Administration and agencies responsible for border- crossing facilities and inspections. Similarly, the roles of Mexican federal, state, and local agencies and procedures are described. Particular detail is given about the Mexican toll road program. Also discussed is the significance of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None. 

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Technical Memorandum #2: Preliminary Inventory of Coordination Challenges. Technical Memorandum #4: Binational Coordination Challenges, prepared for the San Diego Association of Govern-ments. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: HR&A, August 1994 (Mem. #2), December 1994 (Mem. #4). various pagings.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008/#2/4
ABSTRACT MEMO. #2: "This Memorandum presents a preliminary inventory of challenges to binational planning for an interregional high way network in the Tijuana/Tecate-San Diego area."
FINDINGS MEMO. #2: "There are unmistakable signs of good will and support for more integrated transportation planning in the border region. Though there are important differences in language, politics, financial resources and baseline infrastructure, there appears to be an equally great willingness to continue working toward increased
collaboration. Communication is definitely improving, but real coordination remains an unfulfilled objective."
TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS MEMO. #2: The following items need to be addressed:
Administrative issues:
· Impact of planning and structural planning differences between the U.S. and Mexico.
· Administration turnover, especially in Mexico, with loss of institutional memory.
· Absence of comparable roles and responsibilities between parallel agencies.
· Lack of integration between federal and local planning. 
· Reliance on a separate international border-crossing commission for port of entry approvals.
· Lack of coordination among federal agencies in Mexico.
Financial issues:
· Inequality of planning budgets among U.S. states. 
· Differences in the timing of highway funding cycles.
· Restrictions on California spending for projects across the border. 
· Impact of the privatization process.
· Lack of integration between local planning and budgeting in Mexico.
· Funding difference for transportation studies and forecasting efforts.
· Mexican municipalities without a means of local financing that is comparable to California cities.
· California's desire to promote an interregional economy not matched by commitment to building the infrastructure necessary to do so.
Technical issues:
· Lack of analytical tools for a realistic analysis of growth patterns.
· Differences in highway planning development schedules. 
· Differences in design and construction standards.
Other issue:
Highway planning only one dimension of a more complex set of binational transportation issues.
ABSTRACT MEMO. #4: This memorandum discusses the impacts of turnover of senior and mid-level policy and management personnel in Mexico following each presidential election. It is a follow-up to Administrative item #2 in Memorandum #4 previously cited. A
discussion of the problem is presented. The report cautions that the discussion involves a certain amount of speculation about future events and should be treated as a reasonably well-informed view of the issue.
FINDINGS MEMO. #4: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS MEMO. #4: None; however, opinions for addressing the problem are given.

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Technical Memorandum #3: Traffic Implications of Increased Binational Trade in the Tijuana/Tecate-San Diego Region, prepared for the San Diego Association of Governments. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: HR&A, August 1994. 50 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008/#3
ABSTRACT: This memorandum contains a summary of existing and projected trade growth between Mexico and the U.S. according to : some of the studies prepared during the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) ratification debate. "Using one of the few models that attempts to isolate the regional effects of the NAFTA, the Baja California-California share of existing and future binational trade is compared to that in the other border states." "Recent trade growth between Baja California and California is
also compared with recent trends in commercial (i.e., truck) traffic and non-commercial (i.e., pedestrian and automobile) traffic at the four principal [California] border crossings, or ports of entry"..."Finally, a range of estimates of potential impacts of increased trade on the regional highway network is presented. This presentation assumes a positive trade-traffic increase correlation continues.
FINDINGS: "There is no discernible direct relationship between increases in trade volume and increases in commercial and non- commercial traffic growth at the border crossings. In fact, during the same four-year period that imports from Mexico to the U.S. increased, truck traffic through the San Ysidro-Otay Mesa POEs [ports of entry] dropped, according to data reported by the U.S. Customs Service. A regression model estimate... suggests that when viewed over the 1983-1990 period there is, however, a very strong correlation between increased trade between Baja California and California, and increases
in commercial crossings. The apparent anomaly that begins in 1990 merits further investigation about crossing counts and other possible explanations."
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Findings.

Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc., and others. The International Border Transportation Case Study: Meeting the Challenges of Binational Highway Planning and Financing in the San Diego-Tijuana/Tecate Border Region. Technical Memorandum #5: Review of Cross-Border Coordination in Preparing the Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for SR- 11 Toll Road. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: HR&A, June 1994. 18 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 008/#5
ABSTRACT: This memorandum, based on a specific highway planning coordination example, clarifies themes identified in the prior analyses of cross-border highway planning coordination issues between the U.S. and Mexico. It summarizes the proposed toll road project and the analytic activities that were undertaken in the course of the study. It
discusses, in detail, two specific categories of binational coordination: 
1) an intercept interview origin-destination survey and 2) a limited integration of the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) and Tijuana traffic models. Finally, it assesses the important lessons that can be found in this case study that will help guide future
binational highway planning coordination and coordination in other forms of binational transportation planning in the San Diego-Tijuana region.
FINDINGS: The integration of the EMME/2-based traffic model with SANDAG's Tranplan-based traffic model, although limited to the subject case study, was of benefit to planners on both sides of the border.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Efforts should continue to build an integrated long-range traffic model for the region.

Hanania, J., and others. Overview of the Texas-Mexico Border: Background, prepared by University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Transfer Office. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, January 1994. Research Report 1976-1. 
CTR7-1976-1. 162 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 1
CT HDQ O13-18 (aqek)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 O94 1994a
NTIS PB95-133179/XAB
ABSTRACT: Economic growth along the Texas-Mexico border has prompted new concerns. This report, the first in a series of six, defines the study's scope, organization, research problem, research approach, and methodology. In addition, it includes a comprehensive description of the border's binational entry systems and road networks, along with a bilingual glossary of border-related terminology. 
FINDINGS: Detailed findings are given for four general categories: transportation problems at the Texas-Mexico border, inspection procedure and traffic flow, needs and impacts of the new binational entry systems, and the status of the highway network. For general findings see the entry for the summary report under McCullough, B. Frank.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Specific detailed recommendations for improving overall traffic circulation in the border region are given. See the summary report entry under McCullough, B. Frank, for general recommendations.

Hass, James, and others. Mobilizing Private Finance for Latin American Infrastructure: Analysis and Suggested Initiatives, prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank by Hamilton, Rabinovitz & Alschuler, Inc. 
Washington, D.C.: HR&A, February 21, 1995. 68 pp.
CT Dist11 ECONOMIC ISSUES 011
ABSTRACT: This report attempts to address the problems of insufficient infrastructure finance over the next ten years, the size of the shortfall, barriers to long-term debt issuance, and the problems of mitigating risk. It also suggests new roles for international development banking.
FINDINGS: The need for infrastructure development is substantial, existing fund sources are limited and a comprehensive approach is needed to address the problems. The merits of revolving funds and bond banks is presented. Although the concept of bond insurance has merit, it may be applicable to a very limited number of projects.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Consideration should be given to the following roles for the Inter-American Development Bank: 1) to continue to encourage and support countries to maintain sound economic performance and political stability and 2) to better leverage its
resources to help mobilize private finance and appropriate terms for infrastructure projects.

Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raul, and others. The Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on Latino Workers in California and South Texas. Antonio Gonzalez, ed. San Antonio, Tex.: Southwest Voter Research Institute, 1992. Latin America Project Report (Southwest Voter Research Institute) No. 2. 111 pp.
UCB IGS 95 00962
UCD Shields HD5710.75.U62 C3 1992
UCSB Main Lib HD8081.H7 I463 1992 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSC McHenry HD8081.H5I462 1992
UCSC McHenry HD8081.H5I462 1992
ABSTRACT: Impact to California: This study examines the potential impacts of the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on California employment, wages, and migration for five years after the proposed NAFTA is enacted.
Impact to South Texas: This study analyzes the impact of the NAFTA on Mexican- American workers in specific industrial sectors in 37 South Texas counties. These counties are grouped into five regions. The analysis focuses on those Texas industries that export to Mexico and those industries that depend on Mexican imports.
FINDINGS: · The study finds that the California Latinos will experience small net positive gains in employment through NAFTA, even as they benefit less than non-Latinos and suffer more job losses than non- Latinos. Overall, NAFTA will yield only small impact in employment and wages. The largest potential impact is in the area of migration.
· NAFTA will contribute to job gains in the electronic, transportation, and communication industries and job losses in apparel and agriculture industries. The net impact on jobs as a
result of NAFTA is small as job gains roughly equal job losses. Mexican-Americans will gain fewer jobs than non-Mexican-American workers over a five-year period. Counties in South Texas will experience either net gain or loss in jobs due to their dependency on different types of industries.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Both studies (for California and South Texas) recommend implementation of job training and employment assistance programs for the dislocated Mexican-American workers. The programs should target the low-wage, labor-intensive work force that are more susceptible to job losses. In addition, projects aimed at redeveloping communities in rural regions of Mexico that experience job losses need to be implemented.

Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raœl, Sherman Robinson, and Goetz Wolff. The Impact of a North American Free Trade Agreement on California: A Summary of Key Research Findings, prepared by Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. 
Los Angeles, Calif.: UCLA, October 1992. Working Paper No. 3. 46 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 IMPACTS OF NAFTA-CALIFORNIA 003
UCB IGS 93 00032
UCB Main HF3161.C2 H56 1992
UCD Law Lib HD5725.C2 H56 1992 Stacks
UCLA URL HF 1756 H56 1992
UCSC McHenry HF1756 .H56 1992 Gov Pubs Ref
UCSD IR/PS HF1756 .H56 1992
CSL Main Lib U9055 W67 no.3 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This publication reports on a research project to identify the potential impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on California and its constituent populations. In particular, the report focuses on Latinos of immigrant descent who exist as a bridge between the two countries and who are often mentioned as both
potentially at risk and potential beneficiaries. The aim of this report is to place the discussion of NAFTA in the context of the more general and long-term issue of the restructuring of the California and U.S. economies and their position in an evolving North American and world economy.
FINDINGS: This paper considers three alternative scenarios for the future pattern of integration in North America and its effect on the California economy and the Latino population. The three scenarios are: full free trade, neoprotectionism, and trade liberalization with policies for growth and structural adjustment. The authors found that
while the "full free trade" scenario is likely to produce higher output levels and better employment for some sectors and workers, it also generates high levels of job displacement and migration of the less skilled, with lower wages for migrants and greater wage inequality in both countries. A "neoprotectionist" scenario is actually worse in terms of output, employment, and welfare, with no reduction in migration or inequality. Scenario 3, which combines trade liberalization with policies to generate Mexican development and to address adjustment issues in both countries, generates economy-wide output, employment,
and more equitable wage growth in both countries.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Hogan, T., and others. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 7: Commissioned Special Reports: Working Paper on the Impact of Expanded U.S.-Mexico Trade on the Western States. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1993]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB95-112306 Microfiche
NTIS PB95-112306/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report presents a sectoral analysis of the impact of trade growth with Mexico on the economies of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah. Data used in the report are from 1989 to 1992.
FINDINGS: · Even though exports to Mexico from Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico have grown dramatically, most of the impacts of trade expansion have and will occur in Texas, California, and Arizona.
· Most of the direct benefits of expanded trade with Mexico will accrue to the capital and technology intensive manufacturing sectors and to the transportation sector. Losses will occur in labor intensive sectors.
· There are and will be modest direct benefits to the telecommunications, business, and legal services sectors, but the primary impacts on most economic sectors come indirectly from the increase in regional business activity generated by trade expansion.
· Expanded trade with Mexico benefits and losses to the agricultural sector balance out with the primary gains to the grain, dairy, livestock, and forestry sectors and negative impacts for the fruit, vegetable, and fresh flow industries in Arizona, California, and Texas.
· While expanded trade with Mexico is or will be very important to certain businesses or certain communities in the region, the overall impact will be positive but relatively modest.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Ingram, Helen M., Nancy K. Laney, and David M. Gillilan. Divided Waters: Bridging the U.S.-Mexico Border. 
Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, c1995. xiv, 262 pp.
UCB EnvDesign HD1694 .A3 1995
UCB Law Lib KF5569 .I53 1995
UCB Moffitt HD1694 .A3 1995
UCD Law Lib HD1694 .A3 1995 Stacks
UCI Main Lib HD1694 .A3 1995
UCLA URL HD1694 .A3 1995
UCR Rivera HD1694 .A3 1995
UCSB Main Lib HD1694 .A3 1995
UCSC McHenry HD1694 .A3 1995
UCSD SSH HD1694 .A3 1995
UCSD Undergrad HD1694 .A3 1995 
ABSTRACT: This book examines transboundary water resources management in the twin cities of Ambos-Nogales on the U.S.-Mexico border. From this case study, the book makes inferences on hydrological, political, economical, demographic, cultural, and social
issues in the border region.
FINDINGS: Using Ambos-Nogales as a test case, the book finds that the border in general is plagued with the following when it comes to treating environmental problems:
· It separates problems from solutions 
· It creates perverse economic opportunities
· It aggravates perceived inequalities 
· It marginalizes the interests of border residents during the policy-making process.
· It erects barriers to grassroots problem solving. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: To successfully pursue solutions to global pollution, the book recommends improving institutional design to allow comprehensive as well as locally based solutions.

Joint Task Force Six and United States Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. Environmental Baseline. Vol. 4: Arizona Land Border. Final.
Fort Bliss, Texas: JTF-6, January 1994. various pagings.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 007 V. 4
ABSTRACT: This is the fourth in a series of five technical documents to define the environmental base line conditions along the Texas Gulf Coast and the U.S.-Mexico international border. This volume covers the Arizona-Mexico border area. The study area is a 50-mile wide corridor along the border. Covered are: physical setting, natural environment, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural resources. Extensive references are included.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Joint Task Force Six and United States Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. Environmental Baseline. Vol. 5: California Land Border. Final. 
Fort Bliss, Texas: JTF-6, January 1994. various pagings.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 007 V. 5
ABSTRACT: This is the last in a series of five technical documents to define the environmental base line conditions along the Texas Gulf Coast and the U.S.-Mexico international border. This volume covers the California-Mexico border area. The study area is a 50-mile wide corridor along the border. Covered are: physical setting, natural
environment, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural resources. Extensive references are included.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Kearney, Milo, and Anthony Knopp. Border Cuates: A History of the U.S.- Mexican Twin Cities. 1st ed. 
Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1995. v, 331 pp.
UCB Bancroft F787 .K431 1995
UCR Rivera F787 .K43 1995
UCSB Main Lib F787 .K43 1995 Col Tloque Nahuaque
ABSTRACT: This book details chronologically the development of twin- city phenomenon in the U.S.-Mexico border: San Diego and Tijuana; Calexico and Mexicali; Nogales and Nogales; El Paso and Ciudad Juarez; Presidio and Ojinaga; Del Rio and Ciudad Acuna; Eagle Pass and Piedras Negras; Laredo and Nuevo Laredo; McAllen and Reynosa. The book spans from the Spanish occupation to the recent passage of
the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
FINDINGS: NAFTA can serve to stop the trend of alternating hostility and reconciliation between the twin cities at the U.S.-Mexico border, or it can worsen the relationship between the twin cities, if care is not taken to mitigate the adverse effect of NAFTA on labor, environment, and distribution of wealth.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

Kozolchyk, Boris. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 7: Commissioned Special Reports: Disparities in the Law and Practice of Surface Transportation of Goods Between the U.S. and . . . [Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1993]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB95-142733 Microfiche
NTIS PB95-142741/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report describes and analyzes disparities in shipment documentation practices, U.S. and Mexican bills of lading and the private law relating to bills of lading, regulatory liability, insurance coverage, and freight charge regulation. It reviews unification models and makes recommendations for harmonization of law and practice. 
FINDINGS: Despite the fact that both U.S.' and Mexico's law started out with the same straight bill of lading format, modern format and utilization of rail and truck bills differ sharply. In addition, the standard for establishing carrier liability, the amount of compensation, and regulatory policies also differ widely. The differences can not be resolved by agreement on similar formalities and wording because the cure lies in the resolution of conflicting legal concept and/or inconsistent business practices.
RECOMMENDATIONS: · The present study provides sufficient descriptive and analytical data to enable the commencement of drafting of uniform laws, documents, and practices.
· Practices must be a priori harmonized by the private sector participant to satisfy the needs of not only carriers, shippers, consignees, brokers, and freight forwarders but also financiers of import-export trade.
· The public sector should participate in the process of drafting paper based and electronic data interchange (EDI) documents.
· An appropriate trinational forum and process should be designed to deal efficiently with the private and public sector participation. The forum's golden rule should be that no uniform law or regulation should be enacted or use of a document recommended unless the national representatives agree on the utilization of the relevant business practice or method.

Leidy, Joseph Paul, Clyde E. Lee, and Robert Harrison. Measurement and Analysis of Traffic Loads Across the Texas-Mexico Border. Austin, Tex.: Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas; 
[Springfield, Va.: Available through NTIS], 1995. Research Report No. 1319-1. various pagings.
UCB Trans HE371.T4 L45 1995
NTIS PB96-118658/XAB
ABSTRACT: This study reports on axle load and gross vehicle weight characteristics of Mexican-origin commercial trucks processed through the U.S. Customs yard in the City of Laredo, Texas.
FINDINGS: Load summaries are presented on five basic truck classes (by axle count). Analysis of recently acquired weigh-in-motion (WIM) data indicates that most trucks processed through the primary Laredo Port of Entry were in compliance with U.S. legal load limit, except the  6-axle combinations, which had as many as 50% exceeding allowable axle loads and gross vehicle weight (GVW).
RECOMMENDATIONS: U.S.-Mexico trade-related commercial traffic volumes are likely to increase. Further studies on predicting the percentage mix of Mexican truck traffic with Texas local traffic need to be continued so that the potential damage to pavement and bridges by traffic can be accurately predicted. The information on the potential damage will then lead to strategic investment in the infrastructure. In addition, devices like weigh-in-motion should be used effectively to discourage weight violators. The concept of weight-specific facilities, such as a supercrossing, should be examined further.

Lowenthal, Abraham F., and Katrina Burgess, eds. The California-Mexico Connection. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1993. 364 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 004
HAST 5th Stks F870.M5 C35 1993
UCB Bancroft F870.M5 C35 1993
UCB Chicano F867 .C15
UCB IGS 93 01541
UCB Main F870.M5 C35 1993
UCB Moffitt F870.M5 C35 1993
UCD Law Lib F870.M5 C35 1993 Stacks
UCD Shields F870.M5 C35 1993
UCI Main Lib F870.M5 C35 1993
UCLA Chicano F 870 M5 C35 1993
UCLA URL F 870 M5 C35 1993
UCR Rivera F870.M5 C35 1993
UCSB Main Lib F870.M5 C35 1993 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSC McHenry F870.M5C35 1993
UCSD SSH F870.M5 C35 1993
UCSD Undergrad F870.M5 C35 1993
CSL Capitol F870.M5 C35 1993 CRB
CSL Main Lib F870.M5 C35 1993 California
CSL Main Lib F870.M5 C35 1993 California Non Circ
ABSTRACT: Consists of a series of 14 articles discussing the implications for California of trends in Mexico and the influence and problems of Mexicans in California. Also discussed are ways of managing MexicoÕs connection with California and of enhancing
California's connection with Mexico. Includes appendices and extensive notes.
FINDINGS: For 500 years the line between the Anglo U.S. and the Latin Mexico was a dividing line between not only languages and religion, but values, mores, and institutions. That demarcation line is now eroding.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Lundmark, Thomas, and John B. McNeece III. "State and Local Government Participation in Solving Environmental Problems at the US-Mexico Border." Accepted for publication in Journal of Environmental Law and Practice, September/October 1995. 31 pp.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 016
ABSTRACT: This paper covers impediments to local actions to address cross-border problems with emphasis on environmental conditions. Constitutional constraints are identified and four alternative theories under which state and/or local governments could address cross-border problems are presented. State laws, which provide for cross-border
facilities in the states of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico are described.
FINDINGS: There could be a significant role for state and local governments in both the United States and Mexico in addressing the cross-border environmental problems. However, U.S. constitutional limitations impede any action. States need to acquire authorization under their own state law. Furthermore, there are limitations on funding. Strategies for overcoming these problems are presented. The paper also reviews creative initiatives, which are in progress, for overcoming these impediments.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. Logistics Management and U.S.- Mexico Transportation Systems: A Preliminary Investigation. 
Austin, Tex.: Board of Regents, University of Texas at Austin, 1994. Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs Policy Research Project Report No. 109. xii, 99 pp.
CT HDQ O13-8a (arkw)
ABSTRACT: This report follows the 1993 Texas-Mexico Multimodal Transportation report by the University of Texas at Austin by exploring the demand for transport services resulting from recent regulatory changes and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Three case studies are reported in detail covering examples of the changes in infrastructure, model agreements, and regulatory harmonization occurring in the market place. The new logistical patterns developing in response to the expanding trade opportunities in the bilateral trade environment are discussed through the case study approach. The case study examples are: Protexa Burlington International (PBI) rail barge service, Monsanto Chemical Company intermodal rail-truck (IRT) service, and Houston-Veracruz Corridor (a maritime corridor).
FINDINGS: The main findings are: 
· Deregulation, beginning in 1976, has led to more efficient and effective services.
· Advanced logistics has also enabled greater efficiencies in the face of growing international competition.
· PBI service is a successful niche market with growth opportunities.
· Monsanto service successfully utilizes modern electronic tracking to improve on-time delivery and maximize safety of its shipments.
· The Houston-Veracruz Corridor is receiving increased attention as land corridors show signs of stress in both road and rail infrastructure as well as customs handling capabilities resulting in increased costs and delays.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Martinez, Oscar J. Border People: Life and Society in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, c1994. xx, 352 pp.
HAST 5th Stks F787.M36 1994
UCB Chicano F786.M288 1994
UCB Main F787.M36 1994
UCB Moffitt F787.M36 1994
UCD Shields F787.M36 1994
UCLA College F787.M36 1994 2 Hour Loan
UCLA Law Lib F787.M36 1994
UCLA URL F787.M36 1994
UCR Rivera F787 .M36 1994
UCSB Main Lib F787 .M36 1994
UCSC McHenry F787 .M36 1994
UCSD SSH F787 .M36 1994 
UCSD Undergrad F787 .M36 1994
CSL Main Lib F787 .M36 1994 General Coll
ABSTRACT: This book provides a portrait of people living on the U.S.- Mexico border by surveying case histories and by presenting oral interviews.
FINDINGS: Shaped by the unique transnational and transcultural environment, people living on either side of the U.S.-Mexico border keep to their individual national and cultural identities yet at the same time they are interdependent upon each other.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

McCullough, B. Frank. Texas-Mexico Toll Bridge Study: Summary Report, prepared by University of Texas, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation and Texas Turnpike Authority. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, April 1994. Research Report 1976-6F. CTR7-1976-6F. 16 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 6
CT HDQ O13-23 (aqot)
UCB Trans HE336.T64 M33 1994
NTIS PB95-140331/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report is the final report of a study conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation and Texas Turnpike Authority to assist them to achieve a better understanding of the border area's transportation demand and infrastructure needs. The final study is the summary finding of five previous reports, Reports 1976-1~5. The
objective of each study is summarized as follows:
Report 1976-1 provides a comprehensive overview of the infrastructure on both sides of the Texas-Mexico border.
Report 1976-2 provides a description of the database, TRANSBORDER, developed by the study team, which could prove useful in coordinated transportation planning along the
Texas-Mexico border.
Report 1976-3 provides macroeconomics and traffic pattern analyses under different post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) scenarios.
Report 1976-4 and 1976-5 provide estimates of the potential demand for and revenue from additional bridges along the Texas-Mexico border, with such estimates complemented by an assessment of current capacity utilization of the available infrastructure.
FINDINGS: With even conservative NAFTA trade growth estimates, thereport finds that the new bond-financed binational bridge systems passthe prefeasibility requirements in the Central Valley, Laredo, and ElPaso sectors. Together, the capacity and potential feasibility analysesprovide guidelines for future transportation planning along the border by indicating where and why there is congestion and whether a new binational entry system is economically justifiable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations in the final report focus only on those items pertaining to long-term regional transportation planning and future studies. To locate recommendations pertaining to specific issues, please refer to one or more of the five previous reports. This report recommends the following:
· The development of a centralized data base and information system are needed. Geographic information systems can link up data with maps to enhance reporting.
· A coordinated transportation planning framework capable of accommodating the different perspectives and interests would improve the provision of binational border infrastructure. One way to implement such binational planning would be to create a committee of both U.S. and Mexican federal, state, and local officials to represent the various interests.
· Increase the border-crossing efficiency by implementing the following measures: 
1) expedite toll collection and inspection procedures; 2) increase freight efficiency; 
3) develop loop and bypass systems in border cities to improve traffic flows; 4) provide mass transit for the efficient movement of non-vehicular bridge users and to simulate a shift away from auto use; 5) several low-cost measures, such as discouraging single tractors,
implementing automatic scanning system and encouraging the use of prepaid toll coupons, should also be used to improve efficiency.
· In recognizing the link between trade, transportation, border congestion, and mobile emissions, this study suggests that environmental impacts can be mitigated through state and federal funded programs that improve border transportation efficiency.
· The financial feasibility of a high-load facility warrants further investigation, since it would ease the worries that trucks from Mexico, with legal weight 30 percent higher than that of Texas, would do damage to Texas highways. 

McNeece, John B., III, and Jason S. Bazar. Proposal to Establish a Border Development Authority of the Californias, Draft -released for discussion, prepared for San Diego Dialogue and Alan Bersin. 
San Diego, Calif.: Luce, Forward, Hamilton & Scripps, November 25, 1995. 17 pp.
CT Dist11 BORDER ISSUES-CALIFORNIA 009
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes the establishment of a Border Development Authority of the Californias (BDAC) for the San Diego- Tijuana metropolitan area. It proposes a binational development authority with power to plan, finance, and implement transportation
and other infrastructure projects in the cross-border region. It addresses the legal justification under U.S. law for its creation as well as a proposal for its structure and operations.
FINDINGS: There is a need for a Border Development Authority for the San Diego/Tijuana metropolitan area. Infrastructure needs to be developed to meet the demands in the region. An authority would prove beneficial on both sides of the border. The issues that could be cooperatively addressed include transportation, international
commerce, industrial growth, environment, and standards of living.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

McPheters, L., and T. Hogan. Working Paper on the Impact of Western Economic Growth on Trade with Mexico, sponsored by the Office of Policy Development, Federal Highway Administration. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1993]. various pagings. UCB Trans PB95-112348 Microfiche
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this working paper is to examine growth patterns in the economies of the western states and analyze the impact of these trends on regional trade with Mexico.
FINDINGS: The increase in commerce between western states and Mexico can be attributed to three factors:
1) A confluence of events occurred resulting in significant changes in the economies of the western region. Businesses started to be interested more in international competition than in domestic markets.
2) Mexican markets suddenly became more accessible when Mexico joined the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade in 1986.
3) Private firms and government agencies in the western states began to consider the possibility that Mexico could become a long-term,
stable, trading partner. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Melcer, Carlos, and others. Analysis of Environmental Infrastructure Requirements and Financing Gaps on the U.S./Mexico Border, prepared for the U.S. Council of the Mexico-U.S. Business Committee. 
[Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Council, c1993. iii, 47 pp.
UCSD IR/PS HC107.A165 M49 1993
ABSTRACT: This report identifies the range of environmental infrastructure investment needed along the U.S.-Mexico border.
FINDINGS: The report projects that about $6.5 billion is needed over the next 10 years to remedy water supply, waste water, solid waste, and hazardous waste disposal. An estimated $4.5 billion is available through existing programs, leaving a modest $200 million per year gap.
RECOMMENDATIONS: All levels of government on both sides of the border, along with the private sector, need to work together to develop an investment strategy to provide and sustain infrastructure needs.

Metropolitan Transit Development Board. Otay Mesa Transit Needs Study. Final Draft Report.
[San Diego, Calif.]: MTDB, October 1993. various pagings.
CT Dist11 OTAY MESA 001
ABSTRACT: This study assesses existing and future transit needs, evaluates possible transit services, identifies possible funding sources, and develops an implementation strategy. It includes travel demand analysis (development trends, travel projections, transit service issues), transit improvement recommendations, and implementation strategy
development. Appendices include travel demand data and the results of an Otay Mesa Chamber of Commerce employer survey.
FINDINGS: Transit service to the Mesa will be needed as the Mesa area develops.
RECOMMENDATIONS: An employer-sponsored service from Iris Avenue trolley station to the Otay Mesa area is recommended as the most cost- effective initial transit service.

"Mexico's Maquiladora Industry: Importance to the San Diego-Baja California Region," in Greater San Diego Chamber of Commerce Economic Bulletin, Vol. 42, no. 8 (Aug. 1994), pp. 5-10.
UCB IGS A0113 v.42, no.8 Aug. 1994 
ABSTRACT: This article examines the beneficial effect of maquiladora industries to both the U.S. and Mexico. In addition, the paper discusses the beneficial effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on maquiladora industries. The paper also explains steps to take to register as a maquiladora business.
FINDINGS: The maquiladora industry has become Mexico's second largest industry. It added $5.46 billion to Mexico economy in 1993. It has provided an abundance of labor for U.S. manufacturers; investment and skill training for Mexicans. The passage of NAFTA
will further enhance the competitive advantages of the maquiladora industries by removing key restrictions under the original trade agreements.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

Mudge, R., and others. Making Things Work: Transportation and Trade Expansion in Western North America. Volume 7: Commissioned Special Reports: Financing Options for U.S.-Mexico Border Transportation Projects. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, [1994]. various pagings.
UCB Trans PB95-106845 Microfiche
NTIS PB95-106845/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report provides an overview of financing options that could supplement or replace public funding for border infrastructure projects. It describes three categories of financing options that have potential to help states address infrastructure needs along the U.S.-Mexico border: state transportation banks, other opportunities through the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), and increased Mexican financing through utility districts. It also addresses application of the financing tools on the U.S.-Canada border.
FINDINGS: The financial tools summarized in this report vary widely in their characteristics, including the type of problems that each is best suited to solve and the ease with which each might be implemented. Based on experience in other new areas, however, several general conclusions can be stated:
· Financial tools can be designed to fit within a wide range of institutional arrangements.
· Financial mechanism can support non-financial objectives. · No single financial tool will solve all problems.
· Subsidies can be a useful policy tool. · Regional solutions can be helpful. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: This report made recommendations regarding the previously mentioned financial tools:
· States should create transportation banks to lend funds for these border infrastructure projects as well as for other projects throughout the state; the bank could also serve as a mechanism to leverage public and private funds to increase the lending capacity of the state significantly.
· State officials should take full advantage of new and innovative financial options available under ISTEA to fast-track funding for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) facilities and border highways needed to better transportation.
· State officials should take steps to work with other government officials to conduct studies to further investigate the merits of the proposed Mexican utility districts and their applicability to transportation projects. In addition, multinational lending agencies, such as the World Bank or the International Development Bank, and the private sector should be approached for technical and possibly financial assistance in developing a pilot project with
Mexican officials.

Mumme, Stephen. "Innovation and Reform in Transboundary Resources Management: A Critical Look at the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico," in Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 33, no. 1 (Winter 1993), pp. [93]-120.
UCB WRCA G380 XU2 v.33, no. 1 p. [93]-120
ABSTRACT: This study examines the prospects for administrative and functional reform of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), United States and Mexico.
FINDINGS: A variety of changes along the border, demographic, political, and attitudinal, now impinge on the IBWC's capacity to manage transboundary resource problems within its jurisdiction. To cope with these changes, the IBWC must become more responsive to
its various border constituencies. Specific opportunities for assuming new functional commitments are limited by the IBWC's treaty mandate, through additional development is possible in several areas, to include sanitation and water quality, instream flow, and a creative approach to project financing.
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Findings. 

NAFTA: Report on Environmental Issues [The]. 
Washington, D.C.: [Executive Office of the President]; GPO, [1993]. various pagings.
HAST Library PrEx 1.2: N 82/2
UCB Law Lib KF6668.N62 1992 A441 1993
UCD Shields DOC PREX 1.2:N 82/2 Govt Docs Stacks
UC Rivera PREX 1.2:N 82/2 Govt. Pub Ref US
UCSD SSH PREX 1.2:N 82/2 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib PREX 1.2:N 82/2 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative has prepared this report to provide a balanced assessment of the likely effects on the salient environmental issues raised by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The report focuses on new development since the 1992 Environmental Review. Additional provisions in NAFTA that address environmental issues, an update of the 1992 analysis, and any new environmental concerns that have been raised since February 1992 are also included in this report.
FINDINGS: Under NAFTA, the environment protection and preservation will get a boost for both the U.S. and Mexico. The boost will come from more resources available, increased U.S.-Mexico cooperative efforts, and increased environmental law enforcement. The study finds that NAFTA will likely bring about beneficial effects in sectors such as
energy, agriculture, transportation, and air and water quality.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

National Commission for Employment Policy. The Employment Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Recommendations and Background Studies. Washington, D.C.: NCEP, [1992]. Special Report No. 33.
UCB IIRL HF1766 .E66 1992
UCB Law Lib KF3546 .A85 1992
UCB Main HF1766 .E66 1992 *c2 copies
HAST 5th Stks HF1766 .E66 1992
UCB IGS 93 00817
UCD AgriEcon HF1766.E66 1992 Library use only
UCD Law Lib HF3211 .E47 1992 Stacks
UCD Shields HF1766.E66 1992 
UCD Shields DOC Y 3.EM 7/3:9/33 Govt Docs Stacks
UCI Main Lib Y 3.EM 7/3:9/33 Gov Pub U.S.
UCLA URL HF 1766 E66 1992
UCR Rivera Y 3.Em 7/3:9/33 Govt.Pub US
ABSTRACT: This report by the National Commission for Employment Policy examines the effect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. employment.
FINDINGS: NAFTA's economic impact will differ across regions in the United States depending upon specific regions' industry mix, proximity to Mexico and Canada, and export/import orientation. Overall, NAFTA will enhance and maximize opportunities for
American workers and increase U.S. employment level and wages.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The commission endorse NAFTA because of its positive employment-creating effects. Additional recommendations are a) implementing worker adjustment assistance programs that address the adverse employment effects of NAFTA and b) implementing migrant and seasonal farm worker programs that address the short-
term Mexican immigration increase that will result from NAFTA.

National Law Center for Inter-American Free Trade. Disparities in the Law
and Practice of Surface Transportation of Goods Between the United
States and Mexico: A Report Submitted to the Center for the New West.
Part of the TransNET West Project. 
Tucson, Ariz.: NLC, July 1993. 94 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 GOODS MOVEMENT 004
ABSTRACT: Discusses disparities in documentary practices, in the private law of bills of lading, in the United States and Mexican straight bill of lading, in regulatory liability, in insurance coverage, in freight charge regulation, and in intermodal transportation. Unification models from international law and practices are also presented followed by
conclusions and recommendations.
FINDINGS: Disparities and conflicts of binational documentary practices are too numerous and serious to be ignored.
RECOMMENDATIONS: 
· Work towards uniformity. 
· Private sector should lead the way.
· Public sector should participate. 
· An appropriate trinational forum and process should be designated.
· The respective national law centers should be involved in the development of uniformity of surface transportation law and practice.

North American Development Bank. Current Status and Outlook. n.p.: NADBank, September 1997. various pagings.
CT Dist11 ECONOMIC ISSUES 014
ABSTRACT: This document presents a summary of the activities of the North American Development Bank (NADBank) for the two and a half years since its establishment, strategies and programs, critical factors, and expected challenges.
FINDINGS: A summary of NADBank's key programs is included.
RECOMMENDATIONS: No recommendations are identified.

Official Program = Programa Oficial, Transporte Internacional, Third Annual Conference = Tercera Conferencia Anual, 4-6 de Marzo de 1993, Marriott Casa Magna, Cancœn, Mexico. 
San Francisco, Calif.: Kingsley Group, 1993. 1 vol.
CT Dist11 GOODS MOVEMENT 001 MAR 1993
ABSTRACT: Contains detailed information on the program, including biographies of the key participants as well as information on the companies and organizations represented. The program consisted of discussion panels on specific subjects, including shippers, trucking, maquila industry, rail customs, intermodal cargo, port and marine, infrastructure, and air express and air cargo.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Orme, William A., Jr. Continental Shift: Free Trade & the New North America, copyright by the Washington Post Company. 
Washington, D.C.: Briefing Books. 1993. 235 pp.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 017
CT HDQ O13-6 (anio)
UCB Bus&Econ HF1746 .O75 1993
UCB Moffitt HF1746. O75 1993
UCD Shields HF1746. O75 1993
UCLA URL HF1746 O76 1993
UCSB Main Lib HF1746. O75 1993 
UCSC McHenry HF1746. O75 1993
UCSD IR/PS HF1756.O7 1993
UCSD Undergrad HF1756.O7 1993
CSL Main Lib HF1746.O7 1993 General Coll
ABSTRACT: Contains chapters on North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) myths and misconceptions, origins of NAFTA in Mexico and Canada, history of NAFTA negotiations, jobs and wages, oil and automobiles, the environment, politics in Mexico, Texas' role in NAFTA, Latin America after NAFTA, NAFTA and Japan, immigration, and the possibility of a North American common market.
FINDINGS: The fundamental premise of this book is that the U.S. has little to fear and much to gain from Mexico industrializing in an intelligent fashion.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

P&D Consultants, Inc. and Linscott, Law, & Greenspan, Engineers. Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Feasibility Study, Final Report and Executive Summary, prepared for San Diego Association of Governments. 
San Diego, Calif.: P&D, May 1996. 18 pp.
CT Dist11 VIRGINIA AVENUE 001 Final
ABSTRACT: The report addresses the following subjects as they pertainto the Virginia Avenue/San Ysidro area:
· Community redevelopment.
· Economic development.
· Transportation. 
· Regional planning.
· Local land use planning and circulation. 
· Environmental impacts.
· Government responsibilities. The year 2015 is used as the horizon. Several transportation
alternatives are considered.
FINDINGS: The two prime findings are 1. The U.S. General Services Administration property at Virginia Avenue should be retained as, "Disposal of the parcel or vacation
of the existing Virginia Avenue right-of-way is not in the interest of upgrading the San Ysidro POE border crossing facilities." 2. To address existing deficiencies and future needs, a concerted planning program must be instituted to improve conditions at this,
the nation's busiest border crossing. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: Specific recommendations were not identified, but the following elements were discussed and presented for consideration in future studies:
· Include in long range and short range Transportation Improvement Programs.
· Fill data and information needs. 
· Adopt a phased development approach.
· Coordinate transportation, economic, and community planning. 
· Continue international coordination.
· Establish a group for San Ysidro project coordination. 
· Protect Virginia Avenue GSA property.
· Review funding opportunities and develop financial strategies. 
· Develop an international gateway.

Patrick, J. Michael. The Impact of NAFTA on Border Maquiladora and Industrial Activity. Technical Report prepared by Texas A&M International University, Graduate School of International Trade & Business Administration, Institute for International Trade. Laredo, Tex.: IIT, April 1994. 17 pp.
CT Dist11 MAQUILADORAS 001
CT HDQ O13-12 (aocg)
ABSTRACT: This report discusses possible changes in economic and manufacturing activity in Mexico's northern border states resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the impact on the maquiladora program, including its scheduled
elimination.
FINDINGS: Among the findings are that, although NAFTA will phase out the maquiladora concept by reduction of tariffs on products destined for U.S. and Mexican markets, the products will be more competitive because of the rules of origin favoring sourcing of North American parts and materials.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

Patrick, J. Michael. U.S.-Mexico Trade Patterns Under NAFTA. Technical Report prepared by Texas A&M International University, Graduate School of International Trade & Business Administration, Institute for International Trade. 
Laredo, Tex.: IIT, March 1994. 25 pp.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 019
CT HDQ O13-11 (ansk)
UCSD IR/PS HF1456.5.M6 P378 1994 
ABSTRACT: This report "can serve as a general guide for businesses andothers interested in business and investment opportunities in Mexico." It examines "the impact of NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement] on future U.S.-Mexico and Texas-Mexico trade patterns" and "also considers the possible effect of NAFTA on U.S. border communities." The appendix lists the most promising exports to Mexico.
FINDINGS: Growth in U.S.-Mexico trade will benefit both countries.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None given.

Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker. North American Free Trade Agreement: Summary and Analysis. Hamilton Loeb and Michael Owen, eds. n.p.: Matthew Bender, 1993. 112 pp.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 007
ABSTRACT: This document provides a discussion of a number of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provisions, including tariff elimination, rules of origin, customs procedures, technical standards, cross-border trade in services, intellectual property, NAFTA administration, and environmental regulation.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Radoslovich, Frank, Philip Romero, and Beth Vella. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for California. A Report to the Governor's Trade Representative. 
[Sacramento, Calif.]: Governor's Office of Planning and Research, May 1993. 75 pp.
CT Dist11 IMPACTS OF NAFTA-CALIFORNIA 002
CT HDQ O11-214 (akxf)
UCSB Main Lib P580.N67 Govt Pub
ABSTRACT: This "report to the Governor's Trade Representative" includes North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) background; an analysis of NAFTA's economic consequences for Mexico, the U.S., and California; sectoral overviews for various areas (including transportation, border infrastructure, environmental issues, and standards-related measures); and a list of state agency contacts and a bibliography.
FINDINGS: Over the next decade, California's economy will be significantly affected by increased North American integration with or without NAFTA. Also improvements in capacity and management of  commercial surf ce traffic and air transportation are needed to realize all of NAFTA's benefits.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None given.

Ross, John. "The Baja Wall: Picking up NAFTAshocks on the Border Between the Californias," in San Francisco Bay Guardian, East Bay ed., Vol. 28, no. 13 (Dec. 29, 1993), pp. 15-17.
UCB IGS fA8463 v.28, no.13 Dec. 29, 1993
ABSTRACT: This article reports on the negative impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement, specifically in the area of increasing short-term illegal immigration, increasing violation of cross-border waste dumping, easier access for drug trafficking, and other environmentally damaging developments along the border.
FINDINGS: None applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

San Diego Association of Governments. "Baja California Demographic Profile," in SANDAG INFO, May-June 1992. 14 pp.
CT Dist11 BAJA CALIFORNIA 011
ABSTRACT: This report provides demographic information on Baja California, including descriptions of the municipalities, characteristics of the population (by age, sex, etc.), housing characteristics, labor force, and employment. It includes maquiladora employment.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

San Diego Association of Governments. Analysis of San Diego Traffic Impacts of North American Free Trade Agreement. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: SANDAG, August 14, 1991. 4 pp.
CT Dist11 IMPACTS OF NAFTA-
CALIFORNIA 004
ABSTRACT: Provides an analysis of the North American Free Trade AgreementÕs (NAFTAÕs) impact on traffic through the Otay Mesa and San Ysidro border crossings through the year 2000. A methodology is provided as well as an analysis of the impact on Interstates 905 and 5 and concerns related to a new crossing west of Interstate 5. This
information was requested by the U.S. General Accounting Office to assist in their analysis of the situation. Also included is a hand-drawn map of the area. 
FINDINGS: Traffic projections for 2000 A.D. are given.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

San Diego Association of Governments. Economic Feasibility Study of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway. 
San Diego, Calif.: SANDAG, March 1, 1996. 63 pp.
CT Dist11 RAIL TRANSPORTATION 013
ABSTRACT: "Reopening the SD&AE"s [San Diego and Arizona Eastern's] Desert Line would link San Diego to the Southern Pacific railroad in Imperial County. Extending a rail line to Otay Mesa would provide freight service for the region's largest industrial area. The economic feasibility of both projects is evaluated with respect to market opportunities and constraints, project costs and revenues, and economic benefits to the region.
FINDINGS: Reopening the Desert Line of the SD&AE is feasible from an engineering standpoint and would support the economy of the San Diego region.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
· Support reopening the service. 
· Work with Burlington Northern and Santa Fe for use of their tracks into the Port of San Diego.
· Do not recommend a spur track to Otay Mesa. · Private investment should reopen the Desert Line, but modernization should be a private/public partnership.
· The operator of the line should be financially responsible for operating and maintenance.
· Developing a financing strategy should be referred to the City of San Diego's Finance Committee for the SD&AE Railway.

San Diego Association of Governments. State Route 94 Corridor. Tecate Port of Entry: Trade and Truck Traffic. 
San Diego, Calif.: SANDAG, July 18, 1997. 93 pp.
CT Dist 11 TECATE 003
ABSTRACT: Truck traffic on State Route 94 is affected by cross-border merchandise trade through the Tecate Port of Entry. This study evaluates current trade and commercial vehicle activity through the Tecate crossing. Forecasts of trade and truck traffic through this
international crossing were developed, taking into account the continued implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. 
FINDINGS:
· Truck traffic is projected to increase fourfold by 2020. 
· This projected growth can be influenced by many factors, including development of the Port of Ensenada, restoration of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern rail service between Tecate and Plaster City, reduced tolls on Mexican toll roads, and proposed added border crossings at East Otay Mesa and near Jacumba.
· Truck traffic through the Tecate POE is a small fraction of all U.S.-Mexico trade through California POEs.
· The biggest potential impact on truck traffic growth is the growth of manufacturing in Tecate.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None presented.

San Diego County Department of Transborder Affairs, International Trade Commission. The Proposed North American Free Trade Agreement: Opportunities and Challenges for San Diego County. 
[San Diego, Calif.]: San Diego County, June 1992. 38 pp.
CT Dist11 SAN DIEGO COUNTY 005
ABSTRACT: Summarizes presentations made by the County of San Diego International Trade Commission at a series of public meetings held in October and November of 1991. Subjects covered include agriculture, maquiladoras, the environment, labor and immigration, infrastructure, and leadership/regional development.
FINDINGS: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will present both benefits and costs to the San Diego region.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Include obtaining financial support to explore current and future impacts on San Diego County's economy from internationalization and NAFTA. Explore a transborder entity and prepare an annual report on the above and infrastructure needs.

San Diego County, Department of Transborder Affairs, Department of Transborder Affairs Advisory Board. The Cost and Benefits of Immigration in the San Diego Region: The Need for a Local Response.
[San Diego, Calif.]: San Diego County, January 1991. 40 pp.
CT Dist11 SAN DIEGO COUNTY 008
UCSD SSH C600 S95 I55 Documents San Diego
ABSTRACT: This document covers the impacts of immigration on the following areas and gives recommendations in each area: education, law enforcement, community relations, criminal justice, health services, social services, housing, employment, and the free trade agreement. Also includes background information and a glossary.
FINDINGS: Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a significant impact on San Diego County.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Five regionwide recommendations and nine functional recommendations are presented.

San Diego Dialogue. Enforcement and Facilitation: An Analysis of the San Ysidro Port of Entry and the Implementation of Gatekeeper Phase II, prepared for the San Diego District Director, Immigration and Naturalization Service. 
La Jolla, Calif.: University of California, San Diego, Division of Extended Studies and Public Service, January 1996. Contract #COW-5-C-0031. various pagings.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-CALIFORNIA 008
ABSTRACT: This report was prepared for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) of the U.S. Department of State to document the implementation of two of their programs to improve enforcement and facilitation at the San Ysidro Port of Entry.
FINDINGS: It was found that the programs were worthwhile, but additional staff training and equipment is needed to adequately discharge the agency's responsibilities. Also, communications with the public need improvement.
RECOMMENDATIONS: No recommendations are included, but a compilation of unanswered questions is presented.

San Diego Dialogue and Universidad Ibero-Americana. Who Crosses the Border? A Preliminary Survey Report of Northbound Border Crossers at San Ysidro and Otay Mesa Conducted by San Diego Dialogue/Universidad Ibero-Americana. 
La Jolla, Calif. University of California, San Diego, September 21, 1992. 10 pp.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-CALIFORNIA 002
UCSD SpecColl HE372.S26 W486 1994 Baja
UCSD SSH C200 C15 D5 C7f Documents San Diego
UCSD SSH HE372.S26 W486 1994
ABSTRACT: Includes analyses of persons crossing the border in the San Diego-Tijuana area to see family and friends, to work, for shopping and recreation, etc. Discusses law enforcement issues involved in border crossing and making it easier to cross the border. Also includes appendices describing survey methodology and a method for monitoring the impact of border crossers on taxable retail sales in San Diego.
FINDINGS: Most crossings are made by frequent crossers (96% of the 5-6 million crossings per month are made by people who cross four or more times per month). Shopping and social visiting are the primary reasons for crossing, but almost one million crossings per month are work trips (28% of trips).
RECOMMENDATIONS: The major recommendation is to implement a Technologically Assisted Crosser Entry Program (TACE) to improve border-crossing efficiencies.

San Diego State University Institute for Regional Studies of the Californias, and others. Border XXI: Environmental Priorities, Needs, and Solutions in the San Diego- Tijuana Border Region. Final Report, a project funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. n.p.: the Institute, December 1996. various pagings.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 023
ABSTRACT: The report describes the process and tools used for the project and its outcomes, the comments and recommendations obtained during a series of community meetings, and observations and conclusions that may be of help to decision makers.
FINDINGS: The meetings were productive, but sparsely attended.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

SH&E International Transportation Consultancy. Market Demand and Opportunities Study for Air Transportation in the San Diego Region. Technical Report, prepared for San Diego Association of Governments. 
Boston, Mass.: SH&E, January 1996. various pagings.
CT Dist11 AIR TRANSPORTATION 001
ABSTRACT: This report of air transportation in the San Diego Region was undertaken to increase the region's understanding of air transportation demands and opportunities in the context of competing and complementary markets in southern California, the nation, and the world. Five elements are covered as follows:
· San Diego's existing air service and the relationship to the local and national economy.
· San Diego's air transport system in the context of other air services in southern California and Mexico.
· Future aviation demand. 
· A review of the airline industry perspective of San Diego's air transport system.
· A review of technological impacts on aviation demand. 
FINDINGS:
· Current air travel in San Diego is not inhibited by the region's air transportation capacity.
· The San Diego region's air travel growth has been primarily in the "short haul" market.
· The region's international air travel market is relatively underdeveloped.
· Review of the air travel market indicates opportunities for additional domestic and international nonstop and one-stop service.
· San Diego air fares are competitive. 
· Most air cargo is shipped by truck to Los Angeles area airports.
· Approximately 12% of air passengers traveling to and from San Diego use airports outside the region.
· The study's forecast of air travel for the San Diego region in the year 2015 ranges from 2 to 6 million air passengers higher than the previous (1990) San Diego Association of Governments' (SANDAG's) forecast.
· Teleconferencing has the greatest potential for impacting air travel.

· It is unlikely a high-speed rail connection to any market within 300-350 miles will impact the San Diego region's air travel.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Distribute report.

Sierra Club. Funding Environmental Needs Associated with the North American Free Trade Agreement. 
Washington, D.C.: Sierra Club, [1993]. iii, 29 pp.
UCSD IR/PS HF1746.F865 1993
ABSTRACT: This paper outlines the Sierra Club's estimates of public costs for environmental needs associated with The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the U.S.-Mexico border. In addition, it sets forth options for a secure, dedicated source of funding for The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)-related environmental protection. It recommends institutional changes that
would enhance environmental decision-making at the local level and makes recommendations on allocating funding between loans and bonds on the one hand and grants on the other. 
FINDINGS: The Sierra Club estimated total costs for NAFTA-related environmental needs to be $21 billion through 2003. Within that $21 billion figure, environmental needs, narrowly defined to include investments primarily aimed at protecting the air, water, land, habitat, and wildlife, would cost $14 billion, including U.S. needs of $3 billion and Mexico needs of $10 billion. Multiple-purpose investments with significant environmental benefits would cost $7 billion, including U.S. needs of $4 billion and Mexico needs of $3 billion.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The Sierra Club recommends an Environment Fund to guarantee bonds and loans and to provide grants for environmental investments. In addition, in order to provide adequate oversight for the provisions of any environmental side agreement to NAFTA, a North American Commission for the Environment should
be established and funded equally by the three countries in NAFTA.

Sklair, Leslie. Assembling for Development: The Maquila Industry in Mexico and the United States. Updated and expanded ed. 
San Diego, Calif.: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, 1993. xvi, 256 pp.
UCB Moffitt HD9734.M43 M497 1993 2 copies
UCLA College HD 9734 M43M497 1993
UCSB Main Lib HD9734.M43 M497 1993 Col Tloque Nahuaque
UCSC McHenry HD9734.M43 S55 1993
UCSD IR/PS HD9734.M43 M497 1993
UCSD SpecColl HD9734.M43 M497 1993 Baja
UCSD SSH HD9734.M43 M497 1993
UCSD Undergrad HD9734.M43 M497 1993
NRLF W122 910 Request item at
UCB Bancroft Library
ABSTRACT: This book has two main objectives: · To establish that the maquilas and similar operations are a result of the rapid rise in the  globalization of production, the absolute growth in world trade in manufactured goods, and the changing nature of the relationships between transnational corporations and countries of the third world.
· To analyze the impacts of the maquila, or export-oriented assembly industry, in Mexico and in the United States over its first 20 years. 
FINDINGS: The maquila industry will continue to occupy an important place in Mexico's development.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Snavely, King & Associates. Transportation in North America Without Trade Barriers: A Regulatory Perspective, papers and presentations from Transportation Research Board Session Number 120, January 12, 1993. Includes "Current State of Economic Regulation of Motor Carriers and Railroads in United States/Canada/Mexico" (Contents title: "Economic Regulation: A Status Report") by Edward Rastatter; "United States and Mexican Operating and Marketing Environment Implications for Trade with Mexico" (Contents title: "Implications for Trade with Mexico") by Joseph Plaistow; "CP, D&H, SOO Line & North America," by Carl Belke; and "New Regulations Affecting Transportation of Hazardous Materials" (Contents title: "Transportation of Hazardous Material") by Porter Wheeler. 
Washington, D.C.: SK&A, n.d. various pagings.
CT Dist11 TRADE BARRIERS/ REGULATION 003
ABSTRACT: Includes the following papers: "Economic Regulation: A Status Report" by Dr. Edward Rastatter, U.S. DOT; "Implications for Trade with Mexico" by Joseph Plaistow, Snavely, King & Associates; "CP, D&H, SOO Line & North America" by Carl Belke, CP Rail: and "Transportation of Hazardous Material" by Dr. Porter Wheeler, the
Jefferson Group.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

SOHA Engineers. Feasibility Study: Virginia Avenue/San Ysidro Border Station Expansion, prepared for General Services Administration, Portfolio Management Division. San Francisco, Calif.: SOHA, October 1997. various pagings.
CT Dist11 VIRGINIA AVENUE 003
ABSTRACT: This report establishes the areas needed for Federal inspection agencies based on the recommended alternative proposals for an expanded POE at San Ysidro as presented in the P&D Consultants' study, Virginia Avenue Border Crossing Feasibility Study, cited herein. The inspection area needs in this report are based on recent Federal legislation interpreted to require inspection of outbound
vehicle traffic to identify alien movements. 
FINDINGS: To accommodate for the assumptions made, more land will be needed for Federal inspections.
RECOMMENDATIONS: A modification to the alternatives in P&D study is given. It is implied that the existing Federal property at Virginia Avenue not be vacated at this time.

Stewart, Richard B. "The NAFTA: Trade, Competition, Environmental Protection," in The International Lawyer, vol. 27, no. 3 (Fall 1993), pp. 751-64.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 016
ABSTRACT: This paper addresses trade, competition, and environmental protection as contained in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
FINDINGS: NAFTA evolution reflects considerable progress in accommodating environmental and trade concerns.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Study of Pedestrian Crossings by Undocumented Aliens of Interstates 5 and 805 in San Diego County Near the International Border. Final Report, submitted by the School of Communications, California State . . .
[Sacramento, Calif.]: Caltrans, [1991]. various pagings.
UCB Main HE5614.4.S22 S78 1991
UCB Trans HE5614.4.S22 S78 1991
UCD Shields DOC-CA T900 .P43 Govt Docs Stacks
UCR Rivera T900 .P43 Govt.Pub Calif
UCSB Main Lib T900 .P43 Govt Pub
UCSD SSH T900 .P43 Documents California
CSL Main Lib T900 .P43 Govt Pubs
UCLA URL HE5614.4 S39 S78 1991
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this project was to identify ways to reduce incidents of pedestrians crossing California freeways in San Diego at and near the U.S.-Mexico international border. The study concludes with a series of consensus decisions on how to best protect both the motorists and the pedestrians.
FINDINGS: See recommendations.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Potential illegal immigrants need to be made aware through different means of public outreach of the danger of crossing freeways on foot. In addition, increasing roadside lighting and safety barriers and removing shrubbery would also allow motorists to better spot any pedestrian attempting to cross the freeways.

Szekely, Alberto. "Emerging Boundary Environmental Challenges and Institutional Issues: Mexico and the United States," in Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 33, no. 1 (Winter 1993), pp. [33]-46.
UCB WRCA G380 XU2 v.22 no.1 p.[33]-46
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to 1) take stock of current and emerging transboundary resource and environmental issues and 2) analyze what type of institutions will be necessary to deal with those issues in order to secure the necessary bilateral and even trilateral cooperation.
FINDINGS: Different environmental issues and pollution in water and air are identified. Previous efforts by the U.S., Canada, and Mexico in addressing these problems are described.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The creation of North American or even global institutions may be needed in performing two important functions:
1) supervising respective countries in their effort to abide by the environmental treaties and 2) coordinating the trilateral effort to improve the environment.

Texas Center for Policy Studies. Fulfilling Promises: Implementation of the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank). 
Austin, Tex.: The Center, 1994. 29, 20 pp.
UCB IGS 94 00384
UCSD IR/PS TD171.3.A165 T492 1994
ABSTRACT: This policy paper supports the creation of a North American Development Bank (NADBank) and a Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC). The paper cites several positive features of the BECC/NADBank in contrast to conventional lending institutions such as the World Bank. The paper also makes several recommendations on contingencies to enable both institutions to fulfill their promises (see recommendations).
FINDINGS: The positive features of BECC/NADBank are as follow:
· Encourages community participation. 
· Has a structure that does not push for mega-infrastructure loans.
· Includes explicit provisions for public participation and public access to information.
· Targets lending priority to environmental improvement projects. 
RECOMMENDATIONS: The recommendations are directed toward the following elements: 1) appointments to govern the BECC and the NADBank, 2) relationship of the BECC to the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), 3) limitations placed on disclosure of information by the BECC and NADBank, 4) detailed criteria for
project evaluation to be developed by BECC and NADBank, and 5) clarification of scope of environmental infrastructure funding under the agreement.

Texas Department of Transportation, Division of Highway Design. Planning Activities Along the Texas/Mexico Border. n.p.: Texas DOT, January 1, 1993. various pagings.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 008
ABSTRACT: Provides information on legislative actions, an overview often-year project development plan, an analysis of the operational level of service and status of major projects along the Texas-Mexico border, information on urban transportation planning, the Texas trunk system, border transportation research studies, state/federal/ international activities, existing and proposed border crossings, proposed toll roads, projects potentially impacted by free trade along the border, and background information on border crossings. Includes extensive maps and tables.
FINDINGS: The State has placed great emphasis on infrastructure development along the border and the State Project Development Plan (PDP) will be the vehicle for project scheduling and implementation.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Texas Department of Transportation, Division of Transportation Planning. Texas-Mexico International Border Crossings Background Information. n.p. 
Texas DOT, December 1991. 57 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 009
ABSTRACT: Includes maps, photos, and traffic data for Gateway Bridge and B&M Bridge (Brownsville-Matamoros); B&P Bridge (Progreso- Nuevo Progreso); Hidalgo-Reynosa Bridge; Los Ebanos Ferry; Rio Grande City-Camargo Bridge; Roma-Ciudad Miguel Aleman Bridge; Lake Falcon Dam Crossing; Juarez-Lincoln Bridge and Convent Street Bridge (Laredo-Nuevo Laredo); Laredo-Colombia Bridge; Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras Bridge; Del Rio-Ciudad Acuna Bridge; Lake Amistad Dam Crossing; La Linda (Big Bend) Bridge; Presidio-Ojinaga Bridge; Fort Hancock-El Porvenir Bridge; Fabens-Caseta Bridge; Zargosa Road Bridge (Ysleta-Zargosa); Bridge of the Americas, Good Neighbor (Stanton Street) Bridge, Paso del Norte (Santa Fe Street)
Bridge (El Paso-Ciudad Juarez). Also includes proposed border crossings under development.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Texas Office of the Governor. Trade Flows and Transportation Along the US- Mexico Border in Texas and Mexico. 
[Austin, Tex.]: Office of Governor, April 1993. 26 pp. and appendices.CT Dist11 TEXAS 003
ABSTRACT: Consists of an assessment of present and future trade flows, an identification of the transportation infrastructure improvements needed to cope with such movements, and an estimate of the cost of such improvements.
FINDINGS: Needed improvements in Texas for border infrastructure over the next decade are: highways $2,000 million, border crossings $300 million, public transit $618 million, aviation $333 million, and waterways $50 million per year.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Tomlinson, Rick V., and others (eds.). Preliminary [California-Mexico] Border Environment Needs Assessment. 
[Sacramento, Calif.]: California Environmental Protection Agency, April 20, 1995. 267 pp.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 018
ABSTRACT: In 1994 the governors of California, Baja California, and

Baja California Sur created the California Border Environmental Cooperation Committee (Cal/BECC) to address environmental infrastructure needs of the California-Mexico border region. This report covers preliminary work of the State of California in this effort. It presents background information on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) created Border Environmental Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank) and reports preliminary findings of a survey of needs in
San Diego and Imperial Counties as identified by 35 agencies or firms.
FINDINGS: As of April 10, 1995, 149 proposals involving 97 capital projects estimated at $2.08 billion were identified along with 52 non-capital projects costing an estimated $8.4 million plus $60.2 million per year. Of the identified capital projects, several highway and transit projects are included under the air quality category, including  widening of Otay Mesa Road, constructing Route 905, and widening Route 98 between Route 7 and Route 111 in Imperial County.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations. A Report to the President, the Congress, and the United States Trade Representative Concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement.
 
[Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President, 1992]. various pagings.
UCI Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/3/ACTPN Gov Pub U.S.
UCR Rivera PREX 1.2:T 67/3/ACTPN Govt.Pub Microfiche US
UCSB Main Lib PREX 1.2: T 67/3/ACTPN Govt Pub
UCSD SSH PREX 1.2:T 67/3/3/ACTPN Documents Fiche
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ABSTRACT: This report to the President, the Congress, and the U.S. Trade Representative is from the Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN) and covers the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This committee is one of 38 established by the, Trade Act of 1974 to advise the federal government on pending trade agreements. It is comprised of 44 members representing business, labor, and environmental interests. This report evaluates both the strengths and shortcomings of the NAFTA.
FINDINGS: The committee strongly endorses NAFTA.
RECOMMENDATIONS: This committee "strongly supports the NAFTA." (Note: of the recommendations of the 38 committees, only the Labor Advisory Committee did not support the NAFTA.)

United States Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Government Operations, Information, Justice, Transportation, and Agriculture, Subcommittee. Charging a Fee to Enter the United States at a Land Border Port: Hearing Before the Information, Justice, Transportation, and Agriculture, Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House . . . 
Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1994. iv, 180 pp.
HAST Hearings No call number
UCB Main J61 .E9 103rd no.46 
UCD Shields Y 4.G 74/7:M 57/2 Govt. Docs Stacks
UCI Main Lib Y4.G74/7:M 57/2 Gov Pub U.S.
UCLA Law Lib Y4.G74/7:M57/2 SuDocs
UCLA URL HV 6791 U58 1994
UCR Rivera [103] Y 4.G 74/7:M 57/2 Govt. Pub US
UCSB Main Lib Y4.G74/7: M 57/2 Govt Pub
UCSC McHenry Y4.G74/7:M 57/2 Gov Pubs US Docs
UCSD SSH Y4.G74/7:M 57/2 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib Y4.G74/7:M 57/2 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This Congressional hearing discusses the feasibility of imposing a fee for entering the United States from Mexico and using the money collected to fund border control measures to stop illegal immigration, as well as to offset the additional costs to the states caused by the illegal immigrants.
FINDINGS: Senator Dianne Feinstein favors the imposition of an entry fee. Furthermore, she advocates the usage of a fee to increase border patrol actions. 
Donna Hrinak, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Caribbean and Mexican Affairs, raises the question of how imposing an entry fee would adversely impact the U.S.' relationship with Mexico and Canada. Furthermore, if a fee is collected, the United States is bound by the treaty to charge such a fee to anyone crossing the border into the U.S., including U.S. citizens. 
Richard Hankinson, Inspector General, Department of Justice, observes that while charging a user's fee may generate additional revenues, the amount charged needs to reflect the true cost of services provided, both the direct and indirect costs. He advocates the use of entry fees to fund the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) operations. 
James Puleo, Acting Executive Associate Commissioner for Operations, INS, raises the issues of possible severe impacts on border-crossing traffic that the collection of entry fees could have. 
Harry Carnes, User Fee Task Force, U.S. Custom Service, states the expertise of this agency in handling user fee collection, and suggests legal, political, and other considerations that need to be addressed before imposing users fees.
Larry Francis, Mayor of El Paso, Texas, states that imposing a user fee would create economic disasters and immigration problems.
Gerald Shwebel, Chairman of Border Trade Alliance, representing his organization's view, strongly opposes cross-border transaction user fees as outlined in Senator Feinstein's proposal and also opposes the idea of a dedicated commuter lane.
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Findings.

United States Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and supplemental agreements to the NAFTA: hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means and its Subcommittee on Trade, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred. 
Washington, D.C. : G.P.O, 1994. vi, 848 pp.
HAST Hearings No call number
UCB Law Lib KF27.W3 103rd
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UCLA Law Lib Y4.W36:103-48 SuDocs
UCR Rivera [103] Y 4.W 36:103-48 Govt.Pub US
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UCSD SSH Y 4.W 36:103-48 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib Y 4.W 36:103-48 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This Congressional hearing considers the North American Free Trade Agreement and the three supplemental agreements on labor cooperation, environmental consideration, and potential import surges. The goal of this hearing is to develop implementing legislation for approval under congressional fast track procedures (with amendments allowed to the original submission).
FINDINGS: Some 100 witnesses from the administration, academia, and private sectors came forth to give their testimonies. For specific testimonies, refer to the report.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable. 

United States Congress, Senate, Committee on Environment and Public Works. The North American Free Trade Agreement and Its Environmental Side Agreements: Hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session,. 
Washington, D.C.: G.P.O, 1993. iii, 116 pp.
HAST Hearings No call number
UCB Main J60 .E62 103rd no.32
UCD Shields DOC Y 4.P 96/10:S.HRG.103-329 Govt Docs Stacks
UCLA Law Lib Y4.P96/10:S.HRG.103-329 SuDocs
UCR Rivera [103] Y 4.P 96/11:S.HRG.103-329 Govt.Pub US
CSB Main Lib Y4.P 96/11: S.HRG. 103-329 Govt Pub
UCSC McHenry Y4.P 96/10:S.HRG.103-329 Gov Pubs US Docs
UCSD SSH Y4.P 96/10:S.HRG.103-329 Documents United States
CSL Main Lib Y 4.P 96/11:S.HRG.103-329 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This Senate hearing focuses on the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the environment of the U.S.-Mexico border and how or whether the environment side agreement of NAFTA would address these impacts.
FINDINGS: Senator Howard Metzenbaum is concerned with whether the environment agreement would be sufficient to address the environmental impacts of NAFTA.
Senator Frank Lautenberg raises the issues of radically different political structure and environmental policies between the U.S. and Mexico, which could affect the environmental agreement.
Lloyd Bentsen, Secretary of State, and Jeffrey Schaefer, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, advocate the continual support of NAFTA and its related environmental agreement.
Ann Richards, Governor of Texas, feels that NAFTA is the single most important bill that can improve the environment of the U.S.-Mexico border. 
Carol Browner, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, states the environmental agreement in NAFTA is very strong in its environmental protection.
Senator Barbara Boxer and Mario Molina, Martin Professor of Massachusetts Institute Technology, debate that NAFTA may not be perfect, but is a step in the right direction in cleaning up the environment.
Buck Wynne, Partner of Vinson & Elkins, believes that the political will and the technical capacity to deal with environmental pollution is in place in Mexico, the only thing lacking is economic support.
RECOMMENDATIONS: See Findings.

United States Customs Service. Foreign Trade Zones: U.S. Customs Procedures and Requirements. 
[Washington, D.C.: Dept. of the Treasury, U.S. Customs Service], Rev. Nov. 1992. Customs publication; no. 538. folded sheet, 8 pp.
UCI Main Lib T 17.26:538 Gov Pub U.S.
UCSB Main Lib T 17.26:538 Govt Pub
CSL Main Lib T 17.26:538 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This short publication explains what free trade zones are, how they are formed, and how they operate.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Customs Service. NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Agreement: A Guide to Customs Procedures. 
Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., Rev. May 1994. Customs Publication No. 571. ii, 51 pp.
CT HDQ O13-16 1994 (aphz)
ABSTRACT: "This guide was written with input from the governments of Canada and Mexico and concentrates on . . . the rules of origin and procedural obligations relating to customs administration." Sources of further information in the three countries and other useful publications are also presented.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. Financing the Border of Tomorrow: A Public-Private Partnership. Progress Report on the U.S.-Mexico Border Infrastructure Finance Conference Convened by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Mexican Secretariat of Social Development in San Antonio, Texas in July 1993. 
[Washington, D.C.]: DOC, October 1994. 75 pp.
CT Dist11 FUNDING 003
ABSTRACT: This document contains reports on the North American Development Bank, the Border Environmental Cooperation Commission and Infrastructure Projects profiled at the U.S.-Mexico Border Infrastructure Finance Conference, convened by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Mexican Secretariat of Social Development in San Antonio, Texas in July 1993. The profiled projects cover energy, environment, housing, and transportation, but are not intended to be an exhaustive listing of border needs.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Department of Commerce, Office of the Chief Counsel for International Commerce. The North American Free Trade Agreement: A Selected Bibliography. [Washington, D.C.]: DOC, August 1995. 24 pp.
NAFTA Facts 3015
ABSTRACT: "This bibliography is a list of selected articles, books, and symposia that have been published since January 1993 about the legal aspect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)."
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Department of Commerce, Office of the North American Free Trade Agreement. "NAFTA Facts: 24 Hour Automated Information System." [Washington, D.C.]: DOC, April 2, 1996. Document #0101. 9 pp. Request from FAX: 202-482-5865
ABSTRACT: This 24-hour automated telephone service is activated through 1-800-USA-TRADE (1-800-872-8723) or 202-482-4454 and provides, by return FAX, information on NAFTA over a wide range of topics.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Assessment of Border Crossings and Transportation Corridors for North American Trade: Report to Congress Pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Public Law 102-240, Sections 1089 and 6015. 
[Washington, D.C.]: Federal Highway Administration, 1994. FHWA-PL-94-009, HPP-22/1-94(5M)P. 164 pp. and appendices.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-GENERAL 006
CT HDQ 40-O13-1 (anbf)
UCD Shields DOC TD 2.30/5:94-009 mf11 Microcopy Rm
UCI Main Lib TD 2.30/5:94-009 Gov Pub U.S.
UCLA MicroServ No call number Microfiche To SRLF
UCSD SSH TD 2.30/5:94-009 Documents Fiche
CSL Main Lib TD 2.30/5:94-009 Govt Pubs
UCB Trans PB94-215860 Microfiche
ABSTRACT: This key report is in response to a congressional mandate as given in Sections 1089 and 6015 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Public Law 102-240. The report is comprehensive for both the U.S.-Canada and U.S.-Mexico borders and covers patterns of trade and transportation, status of border infrastructure and institutional systems, future trade and traffic flow trends, views from regional roundtables, discretionary program for highway infrastructure, and policy implications.
FINDINGS:
· Volumes of trade and traffic will increase among the three countries. U.S. exports to Mexico are projected to increase by 65% to 70% by the year 2000. Mexican exports to the U.S. are projected to increase by 120% by 2000, with the increase between Mexico and California projected to increase by 200%.
· Port-of-entry facilities at the border crossings are adequate for the foreseeable future.
· Arterial highways leading to and from border-crossing sites are presently under stress. They are badly in need of repair and upgrading.
· Communities that adjoin busy international border crossings face special problems.
· Border states seem to have not distributed sufficient federal funds to provide for border-crossing approaches.
· Paper work, manpower, and procedures problems cause significant delays at the border. 
· Better coordination between federal agencies, local and regional planners, operators, shippers, and carriers is needed.
· Infrastructure and facility planning for major border crossings is fragmented.
· There is not sufficient linkage between trade and transportation data and needs.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
· Fully fund ISTEA. 
· Develop funding options for infrastructure improvements, including public/private collaborative efforts.
· Develop a federal-aid program to provide for international trade infrastructure needs as part of any future surface transportation authorization.
· Create a task force or task forces to address border area congestion problems and to aggressively promote new technology and techniques to facilitate movement of people and goods through ports of entry.
· Establish binational zones to engage in an integrated binational planning process.
· Develop and implement a program for improving methods of collecting and analyzing data on cross-border trade and traffic flows.


United States Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Economic Analysis Division. Enhanced Freight Movement at Domestic and International Gateways. Draft material, prepared for the Associate Administrator for Research, Technology and Analysis.
Cambridge, Mass.: Volpe, July 1997. 36 pp.
CT Dist11 GOODS MOVEMENT 007
ABSTRACT: This is a draft document to support preparation of an investment plan for a partnership initiative for improving freight movement at domestic and international ports of entry. The initiative is one of twelve expected to be included in the National Science and
Technology Council's Transportation Science and Technology Strategy Report to Congress expected to be released in September 1997.
The document includes information on the following:
· Alameda Corridor rail freight consolidation from the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach to existing rail yards.
· Arizona and California rail container loader at Blythe, California. 
· Otay Mesa international electronic crossing demonstration of non-stop container transit from the Port of Los Angeles to the Tijuana maquiladora plants.
· U.S. customs border crossing prototype.
FINDINGS: Presents quality information on various on-going projects.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Includes a funding strategy for Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) reauthorization to extend the program.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. US-Mexico Border XXI Program Executive Summary, October 1996.
Washington, D.C.: EPA, October 1996. 12 pp.
EPA 160-S-96-001.
CT Dist11 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES-020
UCB WRCA G502 N6-2 Summ.
ABSTRACT: The Border XXI Program is an innovative binational effort of U.S. and Mexican federal entities responsible for the border environment to work cooperatively toward sustainable development through protection of human health and the environment and proper management of natural resources in both countries. The mission, objectives, and strategies are identified.
FINDINGS: The Border XXI Framework Document, a part of this series of reports, defines five-year objectives for the border area and describes mechanisms for fulfilling those objectives. Nine binational work groups have been established. Each of these has established five-year objectives, which are present in this summary report.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Continue the program.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.-Mexico Border Environmental Plan Public Advisory Committee. State of the U.S.- Mexico Border Environment: Report. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona, Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, 1993. 11 pp.
UCSD IR/PS GE155.A165 U55 1993
ABSTRACT: This report provides an assessment and recommendations related to the most important U.S.-Mexico border environmental problems.
FINDINGS: The North American Free Trade Agreement offers a first time opportunity to redress long-existing, but worsening, environmental problems in the U.S.-Mexico border area.
RECOMMENDATIONS: The prime recommendation is the creation of a binational institution mandated to protect the environmental quality of  the border region.


United States General Accounting Office. Commercial Trucking: Safety and Infrastructure Issues Under the North American Free Trade Agreement: Report to Congressional Recipients.
Washington, D.C.: The Office, February 1996. 52 pp.
GAO/RCED-96-61.
CT Dist11 TRUCKING 011
UCB Trans HE5614.2 .U564 1996
SRLF D 0008106569 Type EXP
SRLF for loan details.
ABSTRACT: This report to Congress evaluates the major implementation efforts associated with opening the U.S.-Mexico border to commercial trucking, including:
1. Efforts to make trucking regulations compatible.
2. Identification of major differences in regulations and operating and enforcement practices that would affect highway safety and infrastructure.
3. A review of federal and state governments' readiness to assure compliance with U.S. regulations.
FINDINGS: This report updates information previously given to Congress. In general, California was found to be in a better position to enforce trucking regulations than the other three U.S.-Mexico border states. Progress has been made in addressing compatibility issues, but size and weight issues may never be resolved.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

United States General Accounting Office. North American Free Trade Agreement: Structure and Status of Implementing Organizations: Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters.
Washington, D.C.: The Office; Gaithersburg, Md.: The Office [distributor, 1994]. 46 pp.
UCB IGS 94 01075
UCB Law Lib KF6668.N62 1992 U54 1994
UCB Main HF3211 .U55 1994
UCD Shields DOC GA 1.13:GGD-95-10BR Govt Docs Stacks
UCSD IR/PS HF3211 .A337 1994
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UCSB Main Lib GA 1.13: GGD-95-10 BR Govt Pub 
UCSC McHenry GA 1.13:GGD-95-10 BR Gov Pubs US Docs
CSL Main Lib GA 1.13:GGD-95-10 BR Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: The General Accounting Office was asked to provide information on the progress of establishing organizations to carry out the North American Free Trade Agreement's ( NAFTA's) goals and the extent to which a new bureaucracy is being created to manage the terms of the agreements. The study sought to identify: 1) the design and composition of the organizations created by NAFTA and related agreements, 2) the status of staffing and budget-related issues for these organizations, and 3) any instances of the expansion of NAFTA's bureaucracy.
FINDINGS: NAFTA and its related agreements created a number of bodies in three general categories: those created by NAFTA itself; those created by trilateral agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico; and those created by a bilateral agreement between the United States and Mexico. These organizations are: Free Trade Commission, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Commission for Labor Cooperation, Board of Directors of the Border Environmental Cooperation Commission, and Board of the North American Development Bank. In addition, the three countries' trade ministers also proposed a body, the NAFTA Coordinating Secretariat (NCS).
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

United States General Accounting Office. U.S.-Mexico Trade: Concerns About the Adequacy of Border Infrastructure, Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. 
Washington, D.C.: GAO, May 1991. GAO/NSIAD-91-228. 39 pp.
CT Dist11 INFRASTRUCTURE 004
CT HDQ O11-201 (aibq)
UCI Main Lib GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Gov Pub U.S.
UCSB Main Lib GA 1.13: NSIAD-92-56 Govt Pub
UCSC McHenry GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Gov Pubs US Docs
UCSD SSH GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Documents Fiche 
CSL Main Lib GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Govt Pubs
UCB Main HF3066 .U62 1991
UCSD IR/PS HC110.C3 U86 1991
ABSTRACT: Discusses the inability of existing border inspection facilities to deal with increasing commercial traffic, the introduction of automated systems to process commercial traffic, lack of staffing at border facilities, inadequate transportation infrastructure on both sides of the border, and the need for reciprocal access for commercial motor carriers.
FINDINGS: Existing U.S. border inspection facilities cannot adequately accommodate commercial traffic, U.S. inspection staffing is not adequate, and the Mexican infrastructure is not able to accommodate expected increased trade.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States General Accounting Office. U.S.-Mexico Trade: Survey of U.S. Border Infrastructure Needs, Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Washington, D.C.: GAO, November 1991. GAO/NSIAD-92-56. 52 pp.
CT Dist11 INFRASTRUCTURE 005
CT HDQ O11-204 (aieb)
UCB Main JX4115 .U6 1991
UCSD IR/PS JX4115 .U55 1991
UCSD SSH GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Documents United States
UCI Main Lib GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Gov Pub U.S.
UCSB Main Lib GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Govt Pub
UCSC McHenry GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Gov Pubs US Docs
UCSD SSH GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Documents Fiche
CSL Main Lib GA 1.13:NSIAD-92-56 Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: Covers needs for additional customs and immigration inspectors at the U.S.-Mexico border, progress on the Southern Border Capital Improvements Program, and needs for highway projects along the border to accommodate increased levels of border traffic. Also identified is the need for coordination of efforts and a comprehensive border plan.
FINDINGS: An insufficient number of inspectors is the primary obstacle to efficient operation of the southwest border crossings. For the short run the commercial inspection facilities at the major ports of entry are adequate. Highway and bridge needs exist and coordination between agencies needs improvement.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None.

United States General Services Administration, Region 9. Summary of Existing and Proposed Border Stations, includes color photographs.
San Francisco, Calif.: GSA, July 1994. 54 pp.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-
GENERAL 004 1994
ABSTRACT: This report covers the 14 U.S.-Mexico border stations in Arizona and California. Each station report covers general description, comments, pending actions, and future needs.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States General Services Administration. Report on Capital Improvements on the U.S./Mexico Border: Border Station Five-Year Plan. 
Washington, D.C.: GSA, April 14, 1993. various pagings, loose- leaf.
CT Dist11 PORTS OF ENTRY-GENERAL 008
ABSTRACT: This document discusses General Services Administration (GSA) responsibilities, the GSA planning process, the current program under the Southwest Border Station Capitol Improvement Program, federal inspection services concerns, report methodology, and a discussion of each crossing, including the five California crossings
(Andrade, Calexico, Tecate, Otay Mesa, and San Ysidro).
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

United States Industry Policy Advisory Committee. Report of the Industry Policy Advisory Committee for Trade on the North American Free Trade Agreement. [Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President, 1992]. various pagings.
HAST Lib Micro No call number Microfiche
UCI Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IPAC Gov Pub U.S.
UCR Rivera PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IPAC Govt.Pub Microfiche US
UCSB Main Lib PREX 1.2: T 67/3/IPAC Govt Pub
UCSD SSH PrEx 1.2:T 67/3/IPAC Documents Fiche
CSL Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IPAC Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This is a report to Congress, the President, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative from the Industry Policy Advisory Committee (IPAC) on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
FINDINGS: Overall assessment of the agreement is very positive. NAFTA ...will benefit U.S. manufacturers and service providers.... .
RECOMMENDATIONS: Approve and implement the agreement.

United States Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee. Report of the Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee for Trade on the North American Free Trade Agreement. 
[Washington, D.C. Executive Office of the President, 1992]. various pagings.
HAST Lib Micro No call number Microfiche
UCI Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IGPAC Gov Pub U.S.
UCR Rivera PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IGPAC Govt.Pub Microfiche US
UCSB Main Lib PREX 1.2: T 67/3/IGPAC Govt Pub
UCSD SSH PREX 1.2:T 67/3/3/IGPAC Documents Fiche
CSL Main Lib PREX 1.2:T 67/3/IGPAC Govt Pubs
ABSTRACT: This is a report to Congress, the President, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative from the Intergovernmental Policy Advisory Committee (IGPAC) on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
FINDINGS: IGPAC generally agrees with the principles embodied in the NAFTA.
RECOMMENDATIONS: That the federal government establish a formal mechanism for consultation and coordination with state and local  governments regarding the implementation of pertinent aspects of trade agreements, including NAFTA.

U.S./Mexico Border States Conference on: Recreation, Parks, and Wildlife [6th]= Conferencia de los Estados Fronterizos Mexico/E.U.A. Sobre Recreacion, Areas Protegidas y Fauna Silvestre [6a]: Memoria: abril 27 . . . 
[Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico]: Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, [1994]. 91 pp.
UCB BioSci S934.M59 U2 1994
ABSTRACT: This is the memoria from The 6th U.S./Mexico Border States Conference on: Recreation, Parks, and Wildlife. Results from different research and development programs done by Mexicans and Americans in the states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico are discussed.
FINDINGS: Research findings on different species of wildlife and proposed environmental protection programs are presented. See report for specific topics.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

Webster, Arthur L., II, and John W. Fuller. North American Transportation: Statistics on Canadian, Mexican, & United States Transportation, prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics for the North American Transportation Summit by EXP Associates and University of Iowa.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. DOT, Draft March 1994 (Revised May 1994). 73 pp. 2 copies.
CT Dist11 STATISTICAL DATA 001
ABSTRACT: Provides statistical data on land and water areas, population, economics, comparative national statistics for 1990 (transportation bill, domestic passenger travel, domestic freight transport, vehicles, fuel consumption, transportation employment, and
transportation fatalities), transborder and other international transportation statistics (transborder passengers; freight transport; and modal trends in freight transport for movement between Canada and the U.S., Mexico and the U.S., and Canada and Mexico), modal profiles for 1990 (highway, aviation, rail, water, transit, and oil pipeline), modal trends 1987-91 (highway, aviation, rail, water, and transit). Also includes appendices listing sources and materials and references.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable. 

Weiss, Barbara. "NAFTA and Environmental Infrastructure Projects," in Government Finance Review, Vol. 10, no. 1 
(Feb. 1994), p. 49.
UCB IGS RR
ABSTRACT: This report explains the roles and the functions of two organizations created by the U.S. and Mexico to implement the North American Free Trade Agreement's (NAFTA's) environmental protection provisions: the North American Development Bank
(NADBank) and the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC). Furthermore, the report describes how the BECC can function to assist local communities and cities in becoming certified for loans from the NADBank.
FINDINGS: The creation of the two institutions grew out of negotiations for a supplemental agreement to the NAFTA that would deal with 
1) improving environmental conditions throughout North America and 
2) improving national enforcement of each country's laws relating to
environmental protection.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None applicable.

Weissmann, A., and others. Overview of the Texas-Mexico Border: Data Base, prepared by University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Transfer Office. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, December 1993. Research Report 1976-2. CTR7-1976-2. 188 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 2
CT HDQ O13-19 (aqel)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 O94 1993
NTIS PB95-133187/XAB
ABSTRACT: This report presents a data base for the comprehensive Texas-Mexico Toll Bridge Study.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Weissmann, Angela Jannini, and others. Overview of the Texas-Mexico Border: Assessment of Traffic Flow Patterns, prepared by University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Transfer Office. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, February 1994. Research Report 1976-3. CTR7-1976-3. 185pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 3
CT HDQ O13-20 (aqem)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 O94 1994
ABSTRACT: Presents traffic flow information for the comprehensive Texas-Mexico Toll Bridge Study.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Weissmann, Angela Jannini, and others. Overview of the Texas-Mexico Border: Capacity, Demand, and Revenue Analyses of Border Segment 2 (Eagle Pass to El Paso), prepared by University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Transfer Office. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, March 1994. Research Report 1976-5. CTR7-1976-5. 120 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 5
CT HDQ O13-22 (aqos)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 O946 1994 pt.2
NTIS PB95-140372/XAB
ABSTRACT: This volume presents traffic capacity, traffic demand, and revenue analysis information for the portion of the comprehensive Texas-Mexico Toll Bridge Study between Eagle Pass to and including El Paso.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Weissmann, Angela Jannini, and others. Overview of the Texas-Mexico Border: Capacity, Demand, and Revenue Analysis of Border Segment 1 (Gulf to Laredo), prepared by University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Engineering Research, Center for Transportation Research for Texas Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Transfer Office. 
Austin, Tex.: University of Texas, April 1994. Research Report 1976-4. CTR7-1976-4. 152 pp.
CT Dist11 TEXAS 017 vol. 4
CT HDQ O13-21 (aqor)
UCB Trans HE5633.T4 O946 1994 pt. 1
NTIS PB95-140364/XAB 
ABSTRACT: New methods of capacity and demand analyses are developed and documented in this report to examine the capacity utilization of binational entry systems and identify the border sectors where new international bridges are either needed or likely to be
constructed. The analyses focus on Segment 1, which begins at the Gulf of Mexico and ends immediately west of Colombia Bridge in Laredo.
FINDINGS: The feasibility or the need of constructing new toll facilities for border crossing are examined for several different sectors: Brownsville, Los Indio, Eastern Valley, Central Valley, Western Valley, and Laredo. For each sector, possible future revenue generated from toll collection are used to calculate bond rating, which indicates whether the construction of new facilities is viable. The capacity utilization was also measured to indicate the level of congestion at the binational entry system.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations were made for each sector mentioned in the finding. See report for these specific recommendations.

Werthman, Bettye J.M. Background on the North American Free Trade Agreement, presented at The North American Free Trade Agreement Workshop/Public Hearing held February 3, 1993, at South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA. Sponsors: Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles Area Chamber of
Commerce, State Office of Planning and Research, and South Coast.
Los Angeles, Calif.: SCAG, n.d. 13 pp.
CT Dist11 NAFTA-GENERAL 011
ABSTRACT: Includes background, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) objectives, NAFTA opening provisions, export/ import trends, issues and concerns (employment, agriculture, land transportation), sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, environmental protection, and executive committee actions for the Southern California Association of Governments.
FINDINGS: Not applicable.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Not applicable.

Wilbur Smith Associates, CIC Research, Inc., and Estrategias Consultores Asociados. United States-Mexico International Border Transportation Case Study. Element 2: Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for the Provision of a Toll Road Extension to the International Border.
[San Diego, Calif.]: San Diego Association of Governments, December 1994. 65 pp.
CT Dist11 HIGHWAYS 002
ABSTRACT: A six-lane toll road in a three-mile corridor connecting with the proposed SR 125 toll road in California at its junction with proposed SR 905 and the proposed Tijuana Bypass Road in Baja California is engineeringly feasible. It is economically feasible by the year 2008 based on construction completion by the year 2000. This route (potential State Route 11) would involve a third San Diego border crossing about two miles east of the existing Otay Mesa Port of Entry.
FINDINGS: Based on assumed costs of almost $100 million (1993 dollars) and a 30-year bond term, the estimated low NAFTA impact scenario indicates a surplus of revenue over expenses in year 2008 and continuing throughout the study period.
RECOMMENDATIONS: None. 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

George E. Gray is a transportation consultant and a retired employee of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). He has 50 years experience in the transportation field. The first 15 years were in highway planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operations. Most of his subsequent work was for Caltrans in public transportation, transportation planning, and administration. He has also worked in the private sector and as an advisor on public transportation to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the Office of the Secretary of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation.

Mr. Gray is a registered professional engineer, a Life Member in the Association of State Civil Engineers (ASCE), and has been active in the Transportation Research Board (TRB) for 27 years. He is co-editor with Dr. Lester A. Hoel of the textbook, Public Transportation, is author of numerous transportation reports, and has developed training and education programs in transportation.

George Gray holds a B.S. C.E. from Stanford University, an M.P.A. from California State University, San Diego (now San Diego State University), and an M.E. in transportation planning from the University of California, Davis. His last four years with Caltrans in the San Diego District as Deputy District Director included responsibility for transportation planning, privatization, environmental studies, and California-Baja California border transportation issues. 


PRE-PUBLICATION PEER REVIEW

San José State University, of the California State University system, and the IISTPS Board of Trustees have agreed upon a peer review process required for all research published by IISTPS. The purpose of the review process is to ensure that the results presented are based upon a professionally acceptable research protocol.

Research projects begin with the approval of a scope of work by the sponsoring entities, with in-process reviews by the IISTPS Research Director and the project sponsor. Periodic progress reports are provided to the IISTPS Research Director and the Research Associates Policy Oversight Committee (RAPOC). Review of the draft research product is conducted by the Research Committee of the Board of Trustees, and may included invited critiques from other professionals in the subject field. The review is based on the professional propriety of the research methodology.