Research Report

Research Report Bus Operator Awareness Research and Development Training Program (PDF 1MB)

Principal Investigator: Christopher Kozub


This training is designed to enhance the abilities of bus operators to:

  • Quickly and effectively evaluate suspicious and dangerous activities
  • Take actions to protect yourself and your passengers, and
  • Provide timely and accurate information to law enforcement through your control center

This summary and the full instructor-led course were developed by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in cooperation with the National Transportation Security Center of Excellence (NTSCOE), managed through the Science and Technology Directorate of DHS. Through the intensive efforts of four universities and two federal agencies, the team conducted extensive research both nationally and abroad to identify appropriate countermeasures and related skill sets for bus operators relative to identifying suspicious and dangerous activity and reacting appropriately with a focus on life safety concerns.


Christopher Kozub

Christopher Kozub joined MTI’s growing team of internationally recognized transportation experts as a Research Associate in May 2010 and brings a unique background encompassing over 30 years of experience in the emergency services, transportation safety and security, and training fields.

Before coming to MTI, Mr. Kozub served for the past ten years as an Associate Director at Rutgers University where he worked with the National Transit Institute, the Voorhees Transportation Center, and the newly formed Center for Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk. During his time at Rutgers, he was the principle investigator on a number of federally sponsored surface transportation research, training, and outreach projects addressing system safety, emergency management, system security, and terrorism awareness and response.

Prior to joining Rutgers, Mr. Kozub served as the Director of Training for the Operation Respond Institute (ORI) in Washington, DC where he developed and delivered specialized emergency response training on behalf of the FRA and FHWA as well as Amtrak, VIA Rail, Conrail, and other railroads and transit systems. While at ORI he worked closely with Amtrak to develop and deliver security, safety and tactical training to emergency responders along the northeast corridor in connection with the infrastructure improvements, operational changes, and new equipment acquisitions associated with Acela high speed rail service implementation.

Jersey’s Hunterdon and Middlesex counties where he worked with the Association of American Railroads and Conrail to bring specialized hazardous materials training to the northeast part of the country. He also worked with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to develop and deliver fire, rescue, and hazardous materials training for their police and emergency services’ departments, including the development of a specialized WMD program following the 1995 Tokyo subway attacks.

Kozub works with key stakeholders in the federal agencies, surface transportation trade associations, and labor organizations to develop and implement safety and security training programs for front-line employees, supervisors and emergency responders in the public transit, highway, rail, and maritime modes.  He has also testified before Congress, providing a broad industry perspective on current issues in public transit operational and infrastructure security.

Brian Michael Jenkins

Brian Michael Jenkins received a Bachelor of Arts degree in fine arts and a Masters degree in history, both from UCLA. He also studied at the University of Guanajuato, Mexico, and in the Department of Humanities at the University of San Carlos, Guatemala, where he was a Fulbright Fellow and received a second fellowship from the Organization of American States.

Commissioned in the infantry at the age of 19, Mr. Jenkins became a paratrooper and ultimately a captain in the Green Berets. He is a decorated combat veteran, having served in the Seventh Special Forces Group in the Dominican Republic during the American intervention and later as a member of the Fifth Special Forces Group in Vietnam (1966– 1967). He returned to Vietnam on a special assignment in 1968 to serve as a member of the Long Range Planning Task Group; he remained with the Group until the end of 1969, receiving the Department of the Army’s highest award for his service. Mr. Jenkins returned to Vietnam on an additional special assignment in 1971.

In 1983, Mr. Jenkins served as an advisor to the Long Commission, convened to examine the circumstances and response to the bombing of the U.S. Marine Barracks in Lebanon. In 1984, he assisted the Inman Panel in examining the security of American diplomatic facilities abroad. In 1985–1986, he served as a member of the Committee of the Embassy of the Future, which established new guidelines for the construction of U.S. diplomatic posts. In 1989, Mr. Jenkins served as an advisor to the national commission established to review terrorist threats following the bombing of Pan Am 103. In 1993, he served as a member of the team contracted by the New Jersey–New York Port Authority to review threats and develop new security measures for the World Trade Center following the bombing in February of that year.

In 1996, President Clinton appointed Mr. Jenkins to the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. From 1999 to 2000, he served as an advisor to the National Commission on Terrorism, and since 2000, he has been a member of the U.S. Comptroller General’s Advisory Board. Mr. Jenkins is also the Director of the National Transportation Security Center at the Mineta Transportation Institute and since 1997 has directed the Institute’s continuing research on protecting surface transportation against terrorist attacks.

Mr. Jenkins is a Special Advisor to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and a member of the advisory board of the ICC’s investigative arm, the Commercial Crime Services. Over the years, he has served as a consultant to or carried out assignments for a number of government agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). As part of its international project to create a global strategy to combat terrorism, the Club of Madrid in 2004 appointed Mr. Jenkins to lead an international working group on the role of intelligence.

Mr. Jenkins is the author of International Terrorism: A New Mode of Conflict; the editor and co-author of Terrorism and Personal Protection; the co-editor and co-author of Aviation Terrorism and Security; and a co-author of The Fall of South Vietnam. His latest books are Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves and Will Terrorists Go Nuclear? He is also the author of numerous articles, book chapters, and published research reports on conflict and crime.


Authors: Christopher Kozub and Brian Michael Jenkins
Published: July 2012
Keywords: Public bus, Awareness, Surface transportation, Security, Operator