PUBLICATION

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MTI Report 09-05
Supplement to MTI Study on Selective Passenger Screening in the Mass Transit Rail Environment

ABSTRACT

This supplement updates and adds to MTIs 2007 report on Selective Screening of Rail Passengers (Jenkins and Butterworth MTI 07-06: Selective Screening of Rail Passengers). The report reviews current screening programs implemented (or planned) by nine transit agencies, identifying best practices. The authors also discuss why three other transit agencies decided not to implement passenger screening at this time. The supplement reconfirms earlier conclusions that selective screening is a viable security option, but that effective screening must be based on clear policies and carefully managed to avoid perceptions of racial or ethnic profiling, and that screening must have public support. The supplement also addresses new developments, such as vapor-wake detection canines, continuing challenges, and areas of debate. Those interested should also read MTI S-09-01 Rail Passenger Selective Screening Summit.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Brian Michael Jenkins

Brian Michael Jenkins received a Bachelors degree in fine arts and a Masters degree in history, both from UCLA. He studied at the University of Guanajuato, Mexico, and in the Department of Humanities at the University of San Carlos, Guatemala, where he was a Fulbright Fellow and received a second fellowship from the Organization of American States. Commissioned in the infantry at the age of 19, Mr. Jenkins became a paratrooper and ultimately a captain in the Green Berets. He is a decorated combat veteran, having served in the Seventh Special Forces Group in the Dominican Republic during the American intervention and later as a member of the Fifth Special Forces Group in Vietnam (1966-1967). He returned to Vietnam on a special assignment in 1968 to serve as a member of the Long Range Planning Task Group and remained with the Task Group until the end of 1969, receiving the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. Mr. Jenkins returned to Vietnam on a third special assignment in 1971. In 1983, Mr. Jenkins served as an advisor to the Long Commission, convened to examine the circumstances and response to the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Lebanon. In 1984, he assisted the Inman Panel in examining the security of American diplomatic facilities abroad. In 1985?1986, he served as a member of the Committee of the Embassy of the Future, which established new guidelines for the construction of U.S. diplomatic posts. In 1989, Mr. Jenkins served as an advisor to the national commission established to review terrorist threats following the bombing of Pan Am 103. In 1993, Mr. Jenkins served as a member of the team contracted by the New Jersey-New York Port Authority to review threats and develop new security measures for the World Trade Center following a bombing in February of that year. In 1996, President Clinton appointed Mr. Jenkins to the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. From 1999 to 2000, he served as an advisor to the National Commission on Terrorism, and since 2000 he has served as a member of the U.S. Comptroller General's Advisory Board. Mr. Jenkins also is the Director of the National Transportation Security Center at the Mineta Transportation Institute and since 1997 has directed the Institute's continuing research on protecting surface transportation against terrorist attacks. Mr. Jenkins serves as a special advisor to the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and is a member of the advisory board of the ICC's investigative arm, the Commercial Crime Services. Over the years, Mr. Jenkins also has served as a consultant to or carried out assignments for a number of government agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security. As part of its international project to create a global strategy to combat terrorism, the Club of Madrid in 2004 appointed Mr. Jenkins to lead the international working group on the role of intelligence. Mr. Jenkins is the author of International Terrorism: A New Mode of Conflict, the editor and co-author of Terrorism and Personal Protection, co-editor and co-author of Aviation Terrorism and Security, and a co-author of The Fall of South Vietnam. His latest books are Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves and Will Terrorists Go Nuclear. He is also the author of numerous articles, book chapters, and published research reports on conflict and crime.

Bruce R. Butterworth

Bruce Butterworth has had a distinguished government career working at congressional, senior policy, and operational levels. From 1975 to 1980, as a professional staff member for the House Government Operations Committee, he ran investigations and hearings on many transportation safety issues, particularly in aviation. He spent 11 years in the Department of Transportation, eight of them in the Office of the Secretary. He managed negotiations on air and maritime services in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, now the World Trade Organization (WTO)), chaired U.S. delegations to United Nations Committees, dealt with transport and aviation issues related to border inspections, and was part of the response to Pan Am 103. Mr. Butterworth held two executive posts in aviation security and in both worked closely with Congress as the informal but primary liaison. He was Director of Policy and Planning (l991?1995), establishing strategic, long-term, and contingency plans and federal rules. As Director of Operations (l995-2000), he was responsible for federal air marshals, hijacking response, and 900 field agents; he worked to improve security and the performance of security measures by U.S. airports here and by U.S. airlines everywhere. He ran the Federal Aviation Administrations (FAAs) aviation command center, successfully managing the resolution of hijackings and security emergencies. He launched a successful program of dangerous-goods regulation and cargo security after the 1995 ValuJet crash, oversaw the conversion of the air marshal program to a full-time program with high standards, was a key player in the response to the ValuJet and TWA 800 accidents, and was a frequent media spokesperson. He worked closely with Congress, the National Security Council staff, the intelligence community, law enforcement agencies, and authorities of other nations.

Mr. Butterworth was an associate director at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (2000-2003), responsible for security and building operations. He designed and implemented a best practice procedure to deal with mail that might contain anthrax powder and developed and conducted new, comprehensive emergency planning and exercises. Between January 2003 and September 2007, he was one of two deputy directors in a 1,300-person Engineering Directorate at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, managing workforce planning, budgeting, and human capital management for complex robotics space missions, substantially reducing overhead and improving workplace safety there. In addition to helping the Department of Homeland Security in information sharing, he is a research associate at the Mineta Transportation Institute. With Brian Michael Jenkins, he co-authored a peer-reviewed report on the security risks created by highway transportation of hazardous materials for the state of California.

He co-authored, along with Mr. Jenkins, Selective Screening of Rail Passengers, a monograph published by the Mineta Transportation Institute in February 2007. He also co-authored a May 2007 study, Keeping Bombs Off Planes: Securing Air Cargo, Aviations Soft Underbelly, with P. J. Crowley, Senior Fellow and Director of Homeland Security at the Center for American Progress. In February 2009, he published with Mr. Jenkins A Campaign the Secretary Must Win, an opinion piece on information-sharing.

Mr. Butterworth received a Masters degree from the London School of Economics in 1974 and a Bachelors degree from the University of the Pacific in 1972. He was a California State Scholar and a Rotary Foundation Fellow and has received numerous special achievement and performance awards.

Larry N. Gerston

Larry Gerston leads two lives: as an academic and as a communications specialist. A political science professor at San Jose State University, he covers the public policy process at the national and state levels. Many of his books have won praise. Public Policy Making in a Democratic Society: A Guide to Civic Engagement has been heralded as a breakthrough in promoting hands on citizen participation. Recall! Californias Political Earthquake (with Terry Christensen) was selected as outstanding book of 2004 by the American Library Association. His eleventh and most recent book, Confronting Reality: Ten Issues Threatening to Implode American Society, discusses the consequences of inattention to a series of pressing problems. He has written more than 100 op-ed columns in newspapers, including the San Jose Mercury News, the San Francisco Chronicle, and the Los Angeles Times. He has also appeared on NBC Nightly News, BBC, NPR, and CNNs Inside Politics.

Away from the academic setting, Dr. Gerston specializes in media training, message development, presentation skills, crisis communications, speech writing, and strategic thinking. His abilities stem in part from his role as the political analyst at NBC11 (the Bay Area NBC television station), where he appears on a regular basis. He is also a political analyst at KCBS radio. In these settings, he conveys complex messages in laymans terms.

On a lighter note, Dr. Gerston has written The Costco Experience: An Unofficial Survivors Guide. Like his more serious writings, this book focuses on individual empowerment.

TECHNICAL

MTI Report 09-05
Supplement to MTI Study on Selective Passenger Screening in the Mass Transit Rail Environment
Principal Investigator: Brian Michael Jenkins, Bruce Robert Butterworth, Larry N. Gerston
Published: January 2010
Keywords: Crisis management; Sabotage; Security; Passenger screening; Security measures; Terrorism
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